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By Dr. Woodward

Nuclear Power 2011. By Dr. Woodward. Today’s Agenda. Grading your Essay Prompt. Make up Quizzes? -If you miss exam day, you get a different essay question. Congratulations! The class is finally in sync and grades are going up. In the News…… New York. Clean Air Act & Kyoto Protocol

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By Dr. Woodward

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  1. Nuclear Power 2011 By Dr. Woodward

  2. Today’s Agenda • Grading your Essay Prompt. • Make up Quizzes? -If you miss exam day, you get a different essay question. • Congratulations! The class is finally in sync and grades are going up. • In the News…… New York. • Clean Air Act & Kyoto Protocol • Benzene, Tritium • Introduction to Nuclear Power (Nuclear History 101) • Textbooks are now available (Chapter 19) • Turn in your composition book and study guide.

  3. Legislation that you should know: (1) The Clean Air Act (2) The Kyoto Protocol

  4. The Clean Air Act A. The Clean Air Act (CAA) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary (factories) and mobile sources. B. Among other things, this law authorizes EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants.

  5. The Clean Air Act c. The Clean Air Act addresses emissions of hazardous air pollutants.

  6. Phase-Out of Ozone Depleting and Chemicals • The production of CFCs for air conditioning and refrigeration in the United States was banned in 1995. CFCs are much more harmful to the environment than HCFCs, but HCFCs are next in line for elimination.

  7. Kyoto Protocol A. An international agreement to reduce green house gas emissions.

  8. Kyoto Protocol B. Under the Protocol, 37 countries commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) : 1. carbon dioxide 2. methane 3. nitrous oxide 4. sulfur hexafluoride

  9. In the News: November 10, 2011 • Tonawanda Coke Corp., a dilapidated relic of the industrial age that since 1917 has turned coal into material needed for casting iron and making steel.

  10. In the News: • Regulators officially blamed Tonawanda Coke for high levels of benzene and started to aggressively enforce the Clean Air Act.

  11. In the News: • The plant’s yearly benzene emissions are 90.8 tons.

  12. The Clean Air Act • Under the federal Clean Air Act, facilities that emit more than 10 tons of a single air toxic such as benzene, or 25 tons per year of a combination of air toxins, are considered a major source of hazardous air pollutants, according to the EPA.

  13. In the News: EPA Study • The study found airborne benzene present in concentrations up to 75 times higher than permitted in neighborhoods around the plant.

  14. What is Benzene? (1) Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. Benzene is formed from natural processes, such as volcanoes and forest fires, but most exposure to benzene results from human activities. (2) Benzene is among the 20 most widely used chemicals in the United States. a. It is used mainly as a solvent (a substance that can dissolve or extract other substances) and as a starting material in making other chemicals. In the past it was also commonly used as a gasoline additive, but this use has been greatly reduced in recent decades. (3) Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. -Source: American Cancer Society 2011

  15. Exposure to Benzene: • Known cause of leukemia • May lead to anemia, cancers and can damage the body’s immune system by reducing white blood cells. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  16. Benzene Leakage… • In addition to the sheer tonnage, the EPA tests showed that the majority of benzene emitted from the plant comes from leaks in the process area, not the smoke stacks.

  17. Here is how they polluted the air: A. Every 20 to 30 minutes the plant released untreated gas from the ovens into the atmosphere through a valve that was only supposed to go off in emergencies only. -This has been going on for over 30 years.

  18. Here is how they polluted the air: "That's been spewing into the atmosphere for 25 or 30 years," Ron Synder (Whistle Blower) . “During on site inspections the [New York Department of Environmental Conservation] and the EPA would, apparently, just walk right past the valves spewing toxic fumes."

  19. Here is how they polluted the air: • In April 2009 during a surprise inspection by regulators, they found many violations of clean air, clean water, and toxic waste laws.

  20. The Air Quality of the O.C.

  21. The O.C.

  22. Nuclear Power in 2011

  23. Today’s Agenda: Quote of the day, “Out with the old, and in with the nuclear.” Journal Question: Which country has the most nuclear power plants? (1) *Lecture I: Nuclear History 101 & Nuclear News of 2011

  24. Nuclear Power Around the World

  25. Nuclear Power in the United States

  26. Which Country has the Most Nuclear Power Plants?

  27. Nuclear Power in 2011 A. There are currently 104 nuclear power plants operating in the United States.

  28. What percentage of electricity comes from nuclear power?

  29. Nuclear History 101 A. The first commercial nuclear power stations started operation in the 1950s.

  30. Nuclear History 101 B. There are now over 440 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries around the world.

  31. Nuclear History 101 C. Nuclear power provides about 14% of the world's electricity.

  32. Nuclear History 101 D. 56 countries operate a total of about 250 research reactors and a further 180 nuclear reactors power some 140 ships and submarines.

  33. Nuclear History 101 E. Nuclear power does not contribute to global warming.

  34. Nuclear History 101 F. Nuclear technology uses the energy released by (fission) splitting the atoms of certain elements. a. It was first developed in the 1940s, and during the Second World War research initially focused on producing bombs by splitting the atoms of either uranium or plutonium.

  35. Nuclear History 101 G. Today, only eight countries are known to have a nuclear weapons capability.

  36. Nuclear History 101 H. The Nuclear Reactor and generating electricity

  37. Nuclear History 101 This is how it works:

  38. Nuclear News of 2011 (1) On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and tsunami struck Japan affecting several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  39. Nuclear News of 2011

  40. Nuclear News of 2011 a. The No. 3 reactor building of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant burned Monday after a blast following an earthquake and tsunami in this satellite image:

  41. Nuclear News of 2011

  42. Nuclear News of 2011 (2) On August 23, 2011 central Virginia experienced a 5.8 earthquake on the Richter Scale with the epicenter in Mineral, Virginia, a few miles from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant operated by Dominion Virginia Power.

  43. Nuclear News of 2011 a. The epicenter was 12 miles away from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant in Luisa County Virginia. b. Because of the earthquake the Nuclear Power Plant had to shut down. • That is the first time they have ever had to shut down a plant in this country. • They have never had to shut down a nuclear reactor after an earthquake.

  44. Nuclear News of 2011 e. The reactor is still shut down (off line) today (November 2011). f. The public was told that the plant was shut down due to being knocked off the electrical grid when power went out in the area due to the quake.

  45. Nuclear News of 2011 g. It turns out that the public may have been misinformed. The plant was shut down due to all of the shaking which caused the power in the plant to go off. h. The earthquake shake had exceeded the structural design of the reactor. i. Eight seconds after the power went off the backup generators kicked in.

  46. Nuclear News of 2011 • Three diesel generators kicked in. • One of the four generators tried to kick in and failed. l. The Federal law states that nuclear power plants must have back up generator capability for at least four hours before off site power is restored.

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