ELL Strategies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bIHwIoqTPhU Modern Family, baby cheeses Modern Family, drop-in vs. drop-off Ed Murphy
What will we talk about today? • The Background of our ELL Population • The Background of our General Education Population • Academic Vs. Social Language • Niles Township’s ELL Program • Strategies to use with ELL Students • Things to Remember
The ELL Population at Niles: • As of October 20th, there were 78 ELL students at Niles North and 139 ELL students at Niles West. • The largest language group is Assyrian. This is true for Niles North and Niles West. • The next largest language groups are Urdu, Arabic and Korean.
How many more ELL students will come? • We can expect about 70 new ELL students at Niles North and Niles West. • On average about one new ELL student enrolls every 2 and ½ days.
How many students will exit the District’s ELL program at the end of the 2010-2011 school year? • At Niles North about 25 students will exit from the ELL program into the general education program. • At Niles West about 45 students will exit from the ELL program into the general education program.
How many students report that a language other than English is spoken in their homes?
How many different languages are spoken in the homes of our students? • There are 78 different languages reported being spoken in the homes of our students.
There are two types of language that students must acquire: • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills also known as BICS (James Cummins, 1984) • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, also known as CALP (James Cummins, 1984)
BICS CALP It takes one to two years to achieve proficiency. It takes five to seven years to achieve proficiency. James Cummins, 1984
Important to Remember about ELL students: • It typically takes one to two years to learn social language. • ELLs who speak English well in social situations are not necessarily prepared for academic tasks in the classroom.
How long does it take to learn academic language? • It usually takes from five to seven years. • Research (Thomas & Collier, 1995) has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers.
What is our ELL programming like? Intro to ELL 1-2 (4 prds) Students have no English skills. Often have experienced interrupted education. Students have between a 1st and 3rd grade reading level. ELL 1-2 (3 prds) Students have between a 3rd and 6th grade reading level. ELL 3-4 (3 prds) Students have between a 6th and 8th grade reading level. ELL 5-6 (2 prds) ELL Am. Lit. & U.S. Hist. (2 prds) Students have between a 7th and 8th grade reading level.
As a teacher, what can I do? • Take time to learn about your ELL students’ background, countries they came from, and various cultures. • Try to understand the culture that the students come from. • Provide opportunities for other students to learn about their ELL classmates.
How can I improve communication with ELL students? • Avoid using idiomatic expressions. • Avoid the use of cursive writing. • Avoid the use of the passive voice. • Write out simplified directions. • Use commands. Avoid phrases like, would you please take out your paper. • Tape record yourself and listen to it.
How can I improve communication with ELL students? • Face students when speaking to them. • Put key words on the board when presenting new information. • Be aware of vocabulary, especially words that sound similar. For example: wind [wind] and wind [wīnd]
Strategies for Mainstream Teachers Working with ELLs • Use highlighters and sticky notes to identify the material you expect them to focus on. • Identify several essential ideas for students to learn in each lesson. • Provide a concentrated list of core vocabulary from the lesson.
Strategies for Mainstream Teachers Working with ELLs • Frequently check for understanding. • Use gestures, draw pictures when appropriate, use physical activity (TPR). • Rephrase or paraphrase in shorter sentences using simpler syntax. • When showing a film, use subtitles in English.
Strategies for Mainstream Teachers Working with ELLs • Provide graphic organizers. • Provide students with pre-copied class notes before the lesson. • Help students make connections between prior knowledge and new learning. • Restate a student's response.
Strategies for Mainstream Teachers Working with ELLs • Use think-alouds. • Use scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson. • Provide ample wait time for responses.
Assessment How can I help my students? • Know your students. • Teach them how to do a Scan-tron exam. • Have clearly defined, reasonable goals and expectations.
Assessment How can I help my students? • Test the way instruction was delivered. • Take the first item of each section and do it with the class on the overhead the day before the quiz or test. • Provide study guides before tests.
Assessment How can I differentiate assessment ? • Allow oral response vs. written response. • Allow product-based / performance response vs. written assessment. • Read the test for the student vs. having the student read the test. • Use checklist vs. using essay style for low functioning ELL students.
Assessment How can I differentiate assessment ? • Shorten the task, reduce the number of items. • Allow additional time. • Assess frequently on smaller chunks of the content. • Consider using the “open book” test format.
Assessment How can I differentiate assessment ? • Allow free choice in the style and content of performance indicators (poster, PowerPoint, music, graphics, etc.) • Allow the student to use the ELL Resource Center to take quizzes and tests.
Remember, English is tricky. • Steve Martin • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjdDIhG5WvU • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORw8PKNt1Yo&NR=1 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjdDIhG5WvU&NR=1
Remember, English is tricky.Why is it… • reads [rēdz] but likes [līks]? • read [rĕd] sometimes and read [rēd] other times? • plane [plān]and plain [plān]? • two[tū], too [tū] and to[tū]?
Remember, English is tricky.Why is it… • I am on the plane, I am on the train, I am on the bus, but, I am in the car? • Look me in the eye, he punched me in the nose? • I open upthe store and I close it up? • I open up the clogged up drain?
Remember, English is tricky.Why is it… • John will take Cybilouttonight at 7:00. • I don’t want to takeon that responsibility. • I don’t like that picture. Can you take it down. • I said you were a nice person, but I take it back. • We saw the plane takeoff on time. • The militant opposition will takeover the city. • Jim really takesafter his father. • My mom said I can not takein any more dogs.
Remember, English is tricky.Imagine trying to understand idiomatic expressions: • A little bird told me. • Bats in the belfry • Cold turkey • Benedict Arnold • Blackball • Greenhorn • In like Flynn
Remember, English is tricky.Imagine trying to understand idiomatic expressions: • John Hancock • Whistling Dixie • Banana Republic • Bread and butter • Carrot and stick • Get wind of • Shoot the breeze
References Dredske, J., Frinak, C., & Goggin, P. (Eds.). (2007). Working with students who are learning to speak English. Retrieved from http://web.cesa5.k12.wi.us/site_uploads/news/newsfile424_3.pdf English idioms & idiomatic expressions [Idiomatic expressions]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/idioms/ Haynes, J. (n.d.). How long does it take to learn English? [Research on ELL students]. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from Everything ESL website: http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/_long_does_take_learn_english_55843.php Haynes, J. (n.d.). SIOP: Making content comprehensible for ELLs [SIOP explanation]. Retrieved October 19, 2010, from everythingESL.net website: http://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/using_siop_model_08621.php.php Helping educators work effectively with English language learners [SIOP description]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.cal.org/siop/index.html Hume-Nigro, J. (2004). Strategies for mainstream teachers working with English language learners [strategies]. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from ELL Consortium website: http://www.ellconsortium.com/Data/FileManager/strategies.doc Modifying for ELL students [strategies]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2010, from Bethlehem Central School District website: http://bcsd.k12.ny.us/academics/ESL/esl_modifications.html#instruction