Essentials of Understanding Psychology 9th Edition By Robert Feldman PowerPoints by Kimberly Foreman Revised for 9th Ed by Cathleen Hunt
Module 1: Psychologists at Work • What is the science of psychology? • What are the major specialties in the field of psychology? • Where do psychologists work?
Psychology • Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Subfields of Psychology • Subfields are Psychology’s “Family Tree” • How to identify a subfield? • Look at the basic questions about behavior that they address.
The Subfields of Psychology • What are the biological foundations of behavior? • Behavioral Neuroscience • Examines how the brain and the nervous system determine behavior.
The Subfields of Psychology • How Do People • Sense • Perceive • Learn About • Think About • …the World? • Experimental Psychology • Includes the subspecialty Cognitive Psychology
The Subfields of Psychology • What Are the Sources of Change and Stability in Behavior Across the Life Span? • Developmental Psychology • Studies how people grow and change from conception through death. • Personality Psychology • Focuses on the consistency in people’s behavior over time and the traits that differ from person to person.
The Subfields of Psychology • How Do Psychological Factors Affect Physical and Mental Health? • Health Psychology • Explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease. • Clinical Psychology • Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. • Counseling Psychology • Focuses primarily on educational, social, and career-adjustment problems.
The Subfields of Psychology • How Do Our Social Networks Affect Behavior? • Social Psychology • Study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others. • Cross-Cultural Psychology • Investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups.
Newer Subfields of Psychology • Expanding Psychology’s Frontiers • Evolutionary Psychology • Considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. • Behavioral Genetics • Seeks to understand how we inherit certain behavioral traits and how the environment influences the display of those traits. • Clinical Neuropsychology • Unites neuroscience and clinical psychology. • Focuses on origin of psychological disorders in biofactors.
Psychologists: A Portrait • ~300,000 psychologists work in the United States. • In the United States women outnumber men in the field. • Today ~¾ of doctorates are given to women. • Vast majority of psychologists in the United States are white. • 6% are members of racial minority groups.
The Education of a Psychologist • Ph.D. • Doctor of philosophy • Psy.D. • Doctor of psychology • M.A. or M.S. • Master’s degree • B.A. or B.S. • Bachelor’s degree
Careers for Psychology Majors • Most psychology majors take a job in this field after graduation. • Most common areas of employment: • Social Services • Education • Federal, state, and local government
MODULE 2: A Science Evolves • The Past, the Present, and the Future • What are the origins of psychology? • What are the major approaches in contemporary psychology? • What are psychology’s key issues and controversies? • What is the future of psychology likely to hold?
The Roots of Psychology • Functionalism • William James • Concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions • Stream of consciousness
The Roots of Psychology • Gestalt Psychology • Hermann Ebbinghaus & Max Wertheimer • Emphasized how perception is organized • “The whole is different from the sum of its parts”
Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871–1939) • First woman to receive a doctorate in psychology • Animal Behavior • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886–1939) • One of first to focus on child development and women’s issues • Mary Calkins (1863–1930) • First female president of APA • Studied memory
Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers • Karen Horney (1885–1952) • Focused on the social and cultural factors behind personality • June Etta Downey (1875–1932) • First woman to head a psychology department at a state university
Women in Psychology: Founding Mothers • Anna Freud (1895–1982) • Notable contributions to the treatment of abnormal behavior • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917–1983) • Pioneered work on how children of color grew to recognize racial differences
The Neuroscience Perspective • “Blood, Sweat, and Fears” • Neuroscience Perspective • Considers how people and nonhumans function biologically. • Includes study of heredity, evolution, and behavioral neuroscience.
The Behavioral Perspective • “Observing the Outer Person” • Behavioral Perspective • John B. Watson • B. F. Skinner • Focuses on observable behavior that can be measured objectively
The Cognitive Perspective • “Identifying the Roots of Understanding” • Cognitive Perspective • Focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world • Information processing
The Humanistic Perspective: • “The Unique Qualities of the Human Species” • Humanistic Perspective • Carl Rogers • Abraham Maslow • Emphasis is on “free will” not “determinism” • Individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior.
Psychology’s Future • Psychology will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve. • Neuroscientific approaches will likely influence other branches of psychology. • Influence on issues of public interest will grow. • Issues of diversity will become more important to psychologists providing services and doing research.
MODULE 3: Research in Psychology • What is the scientific method? • What role do theories and hypotheses play in psychological research? • What research methods do psychologists use? • How do psychologists establish cause-and-effect relationships using experiments?
The Scientific Method • Approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest.
Scientific Method • Four main steps • 1. Identifying questions of interest • 2. Formulating an explanation • 3. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation • 4. Communicating the findings
Hypotheses: Crafting Testable Predictions • Hypothesis • Prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested. • Stems from theories. • Operational Definition • Translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed.
Psychological Research • Research • Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge.
Descriptive Research • Archival Research • Existing data, such as: • census documents • college records • newspaper clippings • … are examined to test a hypothesis.
Descriptive Research • Survey Research • A sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest —population —is asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. • Survey researchers strive for random sampling.
Descriptive Research • The Case Study • An in-depth, intensive investigation of a single individual or a small group. • Often includes psychological testing
Descriptive Research • Correlational Studies • Two sets of variables are examined to determine whether they are associated, or “correlated.” • Variables • Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way • Correlation coefficient • Positive • Negative
Experimental Research • Experiment • Investigating relationship between two or more variables by: • 1. changing one variable in a controlled situation • 2. observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation • Experimental manipulation
Experimental Research • Experimental Groups and Control Groups • Treatment • Manipulation implemented by the experimenter • Experimental group • Receives a treatment • Control group • Receives no treatment • Rules out other reasons for change
Experimental Research • Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent (IV) • The condition that is manipulated by an experimenter • Dependent (DV) • The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable
Experimental Research • Random Assignment of Participants • To make the experiment a valid test of the hypothesis • Random Assignment to Condition • Participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “conditions” on the basis of chance
Experimental Research • Significant Outcome • Using statistical analysis, researchers can determine whether a numeric difference is a real difference or is due merely to chance • Replication • Repeating experiment • Meta-analysis
MODULE 4: Research Challenges • Exploring the Process • What major issues confront psychologists conducting research?