WaterTextbook 7.1 and 7.2B The hydrosphere is all of the waters on Earth. Water makes up ¾ of the Earth’s surface!
2 Types of Water 1 - Salt Water Areas that have high salinity (measure of how salty water is)
Ocean Temperatures • Temperatures range from 30C to -2C • Currents in the ocean allow warm water or cool water to flow to different parts of the ocean.
Ocean Resources • Salt for food • Drinking water • Magnesium • Fish Can you think of others?
2 Types of Water 2 - Fresh Water Areas that have low salinity (measure of how salty water is)
Groundwater Rain and melted snow that soaks into the ground is called groundwater.
Groundwater con’t The layer of rock and soil that hold the groundwater is an aquifer. The top level of ground water in an aquifer is the water table.
Surface Water Surface waters include rivers, streams, and lakes.
Surface Water con’t A reservoir is an artificial lake that forms behind a dam.
Icecaps and Glaciers About 70% of Earth’s fresh water is found frozen as ice.
The Water CycleTextbook 7.3B • The Water Cycle is the repeated movement of water through the environment in different forms.
Phase Transitions: Temperature change causes movement from one phase to another
Water Cycle Stages 1 – Evaporation The changing of liquid water to water vapor.
Water Cycle Stages 2 – Condensation The water vapor turns into liquid. (ex. Water in clouds)
Water Cycle Stages 3 – Precipitation Water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
Water Cycle Stages 4 – Sublimation Ice changes into water vapor without first melting.
Water Cycle Stages 5 – Run-off Water that does not seep into the ground runs off into a local water source.
Water Cycle Stages 6 – Storage Water collects in bodies of water to begin the evaporation process again.
Video/Song of Water Cycle • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YswL4dIDQuk
CloudsTextbook 7.4B Clouds form when water vapor changes into tiny water droplets or ice crystals.
Factors Affecting Clouds • Air Pressure • Temperature • Water Vapor
Cloud Factors Air pressureis the weight of tiny particles of air on any object.
Types of Air Pressure Low air pressure is caused by warm air and generally results in stormy, wet weather **Clouds form in areas of lower air pressure High air pressure is caused by cool air and generally results in calm, sunny weather
Cloud Factors Temperature the measurement of how hot or cold air is. Clouds form in areas of lower temperature
Cloud Factors Water Vapor is water in the gaseous state of matter. Water Vapor must condense into droplets or crystals to from clouds.
Cloud Types CirrusClouds that are high feathery clouds. They are up so high they are actually made of ice particles. They are indicators of fair weather when they are scattered in a clear blue sky.
Cloud Types CumulusPuffy clouds that look like puffs of cotton. Cumulus clouds that do not get very tall are indicators of fair weather. If they do grow tall, they can turn into thunderstorms. The bottom of cumulus clouds are fairly close to the ground.
Cloud Types Stratus Clouds that look like flat sheets of clouds. These clouds can mean an overcast day or steady rain. They may stay in one place for several days.
Cloud Types Nimbus Another word associated with clouds. Adding “nimbus” means precipitation is falling from the cloud.
Cloud Types Nimbostratus clouds Dark gray clouds often associated with steady precipitation. They occur in thick, continuous layers.
Cloud Types Cumulonimbus clouds Taller, towering versions of cumulus clouds, which are often associated with thunderstorms. Their height can range from two to five miles.
Cloud Types Alto Another word associated with clouds. Adding “alto” means middle level clouds.
Cloud Types Altocumulus Clouds that appear as gray, puffy masses, sometimes rolled out in parallel waves or bands. The appearance of these clouds on a warm, humid summer morning often means thunderstorms may occur by late afternoon.
Cloud Types Altostratus These clouds usually cover the entire sky. In the thinner areas of the cloud, the sun may be dimly visible as a round disk. Altostratus clouds often form ahead of storms that will produce continuous precipitation.
Cloud Types Game! • http://www.nasa.gov/flash/57067main_clouds.swf
Air MovementText 8.1B Air fills our atmosphere and is made of a mixture of different gases in constant motion. The most common gases are nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (about 21%).
Atmosphere The atmosphere has five different layers that are determined by the changes in temperature that happen with increasing altitude.
Atmosphere Layers TroposphereThe troposphere is where weather happens. The part of this layer that is closest to the Earth is warmer than the top of the layer. StratosphereThe stratosphere is where jet airplanes fly. Temperatures increase with altitude. The ozone layer within the stratosphere absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays of sunlight.
Atmosphere Layers MesosphereBrrr! The coldest parts of our atmosphere are found in the mesosphere. It can reach–90°C up there! ThermosphereThere are few air molecules is the thermosphere. The thermosphere can heat up to 1,500°C or higher when the Sun is active. Astronauts orbiting Earth in the space station or space shuttle spend their time in this layer.
Atmosphere Layers ExosphereThe upper layer of our atmosphere, where atoms and molecules escape into space, is called the exosphere.
Air Movement Cool Air Warm Air Warm air expands, becomes lighter than the surrounding air, and rises. Warm air causes low air pressure. • Cold air is heavier than the surrounding air and sinks. • Cool air causes high air pressure.
Convection Current • Convection currents are gases or liquids that rise and sink in a circular path causing wind to occur as air moves from a place of high air pressure to a place of low air pressure.
Wind Patterns • Six convection currents from the air patterns across the world. How might these affect flight time?
Jet Streams Jet Streams Form between convection currents which result in very fast winds, change in temperature, and change in precipitation.
Air MassesText 8.2B Air Masses are large bodies of air with similar properties all through it. Specifically similar temperature and moisture at any given altitude.
When Air Masses Meet… A front is a boundary between two air masses.
Types of Fronts A cold front is when warm air is pushed up by cold air from below, resulting in cumulus clouds and heavy precipitation.