My Presentation Title Instructional Strategies for Blended and Online Learning: A Report Subtitle Goes Here
Conference Presenter Qualifications Dr. Norm Vaughan Dr. Thomas C. Reeves Dr. Margaret Riel * Dr. Charles “Chuck” Dziuban
Common among Presenters • Good Teachers. Good Students. • TRIAD APPROACH • Planning • Having elements aligned (more in Strategies section)
Strategies for Success:TRIAD Approach changed source: Ehrmann (2002) http://www.marshall.edu/it/cit/flashlight/AuthorGuidelines.htm#triad
Definitions • Online • No face to face (F2F) interaction • Blended • Some F2F • Synchronous • All together now! • Asynchronous • Student-paced “…thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies. “
Blended Course:What Proportion for Each? Planning is Key Synchronous Asynchronous 30 % 50 % ONLINE Example! F2F 20 % 0 %
Why Teach Blended/Online?Benefits to Faculty • Ongoingcourse redesign; introduction of new teaching materials/resources; • More actual, real-time interactionwith students; • Borderless teaching, reaching more (and potentially better prepared) students; • Teach a course from other locations (e.g., during summer) • Potential to create sustained communities of learners – enhance student learning; maximize institutional resources; access; retention/convenience
Benefits to Faculty (Dziuban) 87% of UCF faculty surveyed indicated they have changed their approach to teaching as a result of their online teaching experience. • respond more to student needs • course development and delivery • incorporating technology into teaching • modifying their time management • utilizing resources source: RITE, http://www.rite.ucf.edu/impactevaluation.htm
Why Take Blended/Online? Benefits to Students • Convenience and Access • Removing the geographic barrier. Reaching remote areas that don’t have universities. • Convenience and Access • Allows adults to continue to work full-time. Have an intensive F2F institute (i.e., during summer), then the rest is online. • Potential to succeed • Students have more time to digest materials. Hands on experience still possible. • Create sustained communities of learners – enhance student learning
Jannette Strategies for Success omit
Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education encourages contact between students and faculty, develops reciprocity and cooperation among students, encourages active learning, gives prompt feedback, emphasizes time on task, communicates high expectations, and respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) Necessary?
E-Learning Alignment (Reeves’ Strategy) Short-term outcomes Long-term Development mission goals learning objectives Lower order, discrete Higher order, general Higher order, general content One right answer Multiple perspectives instructional design Direct Instruction Problem-Based Problem-Based learner tasks Academic and textbook Authentic, meaningful Authentic, meaningful instructor roles Focus on teaching Focus on Learning technology roles Prepackaged data Real world data Real world data ??? assessment Discrete knowledge Mental models Mental models
LEARNER TASKS Teaching with technology works when learning tasks are authentic! Keep it real.
TECHNOLOGY ROLES Technology in higher education is necessary, but not sufficient.Learning WITH technology, not FROM technology *
TECHNOLOGY ROLES Technologies such as Web are only delivery systems for the interactive learning dimensions we design for them. Authentic Assessment Coaching Authentic Tasks Problem-Solving
E-Learning Alignment How To Apply… Moved to show example
ALIGNMENT IS KEY! Objectives Content Instructional Design Instructor Roles Learner Roles Technology Roles Assessment Apply tourniquet ATLS (from manual) Authentic tasks Formative feedback Active engagement High fidelity simulation Stop bleeding Moved to show example
LEARNER TASKS Leslie E-learning that fails (Reeves): extensive use of talking heads isolated learners who get limited feedback low-level learning measured by multiple-choice tests abstract exercises that don’t take advantage of technology
LEARNER TASKS E-learning that works (Reeves): Authentic tasks in an information-rich, tool-rich environment collaborative learning with synchronous and asynchronous communications learning at pace and time of learner‘s choosing learning marked by continuous improvement of a piece of work AN
Fallacy We are Here • People learn “from” technology. • Knowledge is transmitted via media. • People passively receive messages. • Interaction need only be occasional and artificial. • Instructional design is best left to experts. • E-learning is simply movingtraditional instruction online.
Truth We want to be Here • People learn “with” technology. • Knowledge is constructed, represented, and shared. • People learn best when they collaborate to tackle problems/tasks. • Interaction is authentic. • Instructional design must become a process that better reflects how people learn.
Jannette Vaughan’s Strategy for Success Enlarged chart
Teaching Presence (Vaughan) • Teaching Presence (TP) is a significant determinate of student satisfaction,perceived learning, and sense of community (Akyol & Garrison, 2008; Arbaugh, 2008; Eom, et al., 2006 ; Shea et al. 2004, 2005). • TP is needed to establish CP and SP; lowest CP scores were reported by students who rated TP as weak(Shea & Bidjerano, 2009).
Leslie Faculty Strategies (Dziuban) Advice from Faculty to Faculty • Preparation is crucial to success • Attending to their mental health, getting support, and knowing technology. • Finally, faculty should be prepared to spend more time on their Web course - it is a fact of life! source: RITE, http://www.rite.ucf.edu/impactevaluation.htm
Student Strategies (Dziuban) Advice from Students to Students • Keep up and don't procrastinate (discipline!) • Attend the orientation • Develop your computer skills • Keep in touch with the professor, ask for help • Check the forum daily source: RITE, http://www.rite.ucf.edu/impactevaluation.htm
Jannette Building Learning Communities • Community of Inquiry (Vaughan) • Learning Circles (Riel)
Vaughan’s Community of Inquiry • The importance of a community of inquiry is that, while the objective of critical reflection is intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical reflection is “thoroughly social and communal”. • Lipman, 1991
Riel’s Learning Circles • Characterized by diverse population • Distributed leadership • Use the social capital of your classmates. Make every student a "consultant." • Knowledge building • Activities instead of weeks are organizational factors
Take Away • Learning Circles might be best way for us (Distance Ed educators) to share information. • Requiring students to form and use Learning Circles will save me time (peer review)
Strategy for SuccessFollow Models • http://www.authentictasks.uow.edu.au/projectSites.html • Others are on the blog
Technology Tools • Your handout • On the blog
Assessment “We assess people and we evaluate things.” (Reeves)
Primary Roles of Assessment Diagnostic Formative Summative determine a student’s pre-knowledge and identify strengths and weaknesses provide a student with feedback on their progress during a course estimate performance at the end of a course and ‘grade’ student’s work
Experts recommend that online & blended courses should include a mix of three kinds of assessment:1. Traditional2. Performance3. Portfolio
Authentic Assessment Characteristics Examples in blended learning • Seamless integration of assessment and task • Opportunities to craft polished performances • Significant student time and effort in collaboration with others Electronic portfolios Web pages Downloadablereports Movies/documentaries Presentations toclients
Leslie Learning Styles
Cognitive To know Thinking Thought Epistemology Knowing To feel Feeling Emotion Esthetics Caring – Affective – Conative • To act • Willing • Volition • Ethics • Doing
Learning Styles (William Long, Univ. of Mississippi) Four Types: Function of Energy Level and Need for Approval
Learning Styles How do you act when you are pissed off?
Which Type Learns Best Online? Fully Online
Which Type Learns Best Online? • Passive dependent – least satisfied with online learning • Baby Boomer faculty and Millenial students – disconnect of generations • Aggressive dependent • most students in universities • self-selection
Reality and Challenges • University Support • Alone • Systemic • Boutique?
Reality and Challenges • University Support • Smart Classrooms • Too few • Intermittent wireless • Course Development support? • Training? • IT support • Who ya’ gonna call? • Password protected sites • Streaming video • Secure Testing site
Reality and Challenges • Student Technology Difficulties • Multiple platforms • Multiple operating systems • Multiple browsers • Multiple versions • Multiple technology literacy levels • MULTIPLE CHALLENGES… • …and fears…