POLYPROPYLENE! One Popular Polymer!
What’s so great about POLYPROPYLENE? • High Melting Point (dishwasher safe!) • Intermediate crystallinity: tough without being brittle • High resistance to fatigue (living hinge) • Chemically Inert • CHEAP to MAKE!!!
Synthesis 1. Zeigler-Natta polymerization: TiCl3 + Al(C2H5)2Cl, or TiCl4 + Al(C2H5)3
Synthesis 2) Kaminsky Catalysts: Metallocene A metallocene is a positively charged metal ion sandwiched between two negatively charged cyclopentadienyl anions.
The era of Polypropylene & Polyethylene Courtesy of Mr. Hogan and Mr. Banks
How much polypropylene is out there? PP generation in 1996 (tons) Source: EPA, Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1997 Update * Includes plastics in disposable diapers, clothing, footwear, etc. ** Other plastics packaging includes coatings, closures, caps, trays, shapes, etc.
Longevity: ? 100s of years “Plastics numbered 3-7 have very limited markets, and the cost to separate and ship these small volume plastics is in excess of $12,000 per month.” - Madison pride recycling program Madison, WI The only way to get rid of it is to burn it. Roughly 25,000 tons were recycled in 1996 (that’s 1%)
Bibliography • “Polypropylene”, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene, 11/1/05 • “Plastics Recycling Information Sheet”, Waste Online. http://www.wasteonline.org.uk/resources/InformationSheets/Plastics.htm, 11/7/05 • “Plastics Recycling” and “Polypropylene PP”, British Plastics Federation. http://www.bpf.co.uk/bpfindustry/process_plastics_recycling.cfm and http://www.bpf.co.uk/bpfindustry/plastics_materials_polypropylene_PP.cfm, 11/7/05 • “Polypropylene”, Macrogalleria. http://www.pslc.ws/mactest/pp.htm 11/1/05 • “Polypropylene PP”, Bird Box Company, http://www.birdboxcompany.com/en/pp_data.htm, 11/7/05 • “Recycling Symbols (US)”, Earth Odessy LLC. http://www.earthodyssey.com/symbols.html 11/7/05 • “Stonyfield Farm and Environmental Packaging”, Stonyfield Farm. http://www.stonyfield.com/EarthActions/EnvironmentalPackaging.cfm., 11/7/05 • “UV Damage to Polymers”, UN Environment Program. http://www.gcrio.org/UNEP1998/UNEP98p62.htmlhttp://www.p2pays.org/ref/02/0162230.pdf 11/7/05 • “Chemical of the Week: Polymers” Science is Fun. http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/POLYMERS/Polymers.html, 11/1/05 • “Plastic: PP (#5) Commodity Profile of market Assessment”, 1998. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources/ Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance.