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Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware

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Computer Hardware

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  1. Computer Hardware Hery hamdiazwir

  2. ICT & Computer • What is ICT (TIK)? • TeknologiInformasimeliputisegalahal yang berkaitandenganproses, penggunaansebagaialat bantu, manipulasi, danpengelolaaninformasi. (Wikipedia) • TeknologiKomunikasiadalahsegalasesuatu yang berkaitandenganpenggunaanalat bantu untukmemrosesdanmentansfer data dariperangkat yang satukelainnya (Wikipedia) • What is Computer? • Suatumesin yang dapatdiprogram yang menerima, menyimpan, memanipulasi data danmenghasilkannyadalambentuk/format yang lebihberguna (Wikipedia). Komputermelakukanproses yang disebutkomputasi.

  3. Structure & Function • Structure is the way in which components relate to each other • Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure

  4. Function • All computer functions are: • Data processing • Data storage • Data movement • Control

  5. Functional View

  6. Operations (a) Data movement

  7. Operations (b) Storage

  8. Operation (c) Processing from/to storage

  9. Operation (d)Processing from storage to I/O

  10. Structure - Top Level Computer Peripherals Central Processing Unit Main Memory Computer Systems Interconnection Input Output Communication lines

  11. Structure - The CPU CPU Arithmetic and Login Unit Computer Registers I/O System Bus CPU Internal CPU Interconnection Memory Control Unit

  12. Structure - The Control Unit Control Unit CPU Sequencing Login ALU Control Unit Internal Bus Control Unit Registers and Decoders Registers Control Memory

  13. Memory • Semiconductor, Internal Memory • Volatile (RWM – Read Write Memory) Known as RAM • Nonvolatile (ROM) • External Memory • Magnetic Disk • Optical Disk • Magnetic Tape

  14. Semiconductor Memory Types

  15. Semiconductor Memory • RAM • Misnamed as all semiconductor memory is random access • Read/Write • Volatile • Temporary storage • Static or dynamic

  16. Memory Cell Operation

  17. Dynamic RAM • Bits stored as charge in capacitors • Charges leak • Need refreshing even when powered • Simpler construction • Smaller per bit • Less expensive • Need refresh circuits • Slower • Main memory • Essentially analogue • Level of charge determines value

  18. Dynamic RAM Structure

  19. DRAM Operation • Address line active when bit read or written • Transistor switch closed (current flows) • Write • Voltage to bit line • High for 1 low for 0 • Then signal address line • Transfers charge to capacitor • Read • Address line selected • transistor turns on • Charge from capacitor fed via bit line to sense amplifier • Compares with reference value to determine 0 or 1 • Capacitor charge must be restored

  20. Static RAM • Bits stored as on/off switches • No charges to leak • No refreshing needed when powered • More complex construction • Larger per bit • More expensive • Does not need refresh circuits • Faster • Cache • Digital • Uses flip-flops

  21. Stating RAM Structure

  22. Static RAM Operation • Transistor arrangement gives stable logic state • State 1 • C1 high, C2 low • T1 T4 off, T2 T3 on • State 0 • C2 high, C1 low • T2 T3 off, T1 T4 on • Address line transistors T5 T6 is switch • Write – apply value to B & compliment to B • Read – value is on line B

  23. SRAM v DRAM • Both volatile • Power needed to preserve data • Dynamic cell • Simpler to build, smaller • More dense • Less expensive • Needs refresh • Larger memory units • Static • Faster • Cache

  24. Read Only Memory (ROM) • Permanent storage • Nonvolatile • Microprogramming (see later) • Library subroutines • Systems programs (BIOS) • Function tables

  25. Types of ROM • Written during manufacture • Very expensive for small runs • Programmable (once) • PROM • Needs special equipment to program • Read “mostly” • Erasable Programmable (EPROM) • Erased by UV • Electrically Erasable (EEPROM) • Takes much longer to write than read • Flash memory • Erase whole memory electrically

  26. Types of External Memory • Magnetic Disk • RAID • Removable • Optical • CD-ROM • CD-Recordable (CD-R) • CD-R/W • DVD • Magnetic Tape

  27. Magnetic Disk • Disk substrate coated with magnetizable material (iron oxide…rust) • Substrate used to be aluminium • Now glass • Improved surface uniformity • Increases reliability • Reduction in surface defects • Reduced read/write errors • Lower flight heights (See later) • Better stiffness • Better shock/damage resistance

  28. Inductive Write MR Read

  29. Data Organization and Formatting • Concentric rings or tracks • Gaps between tracks • Reduce gap to increase capacity • Same number of bits per track (variable packing density) • Constant angular velocity • Tracks divided into sectors • Minimum block size is one sector • May have more than one sector per block

  30. Disk Data Layout

  31. Disk Layout Methods Diagram

  32. Finding Sectors • Must be able to identify start of track and sector • Format disk • Additional information not available to user • Marks tracks and sectors

  33. Winchester Disk FormatSeagate ST506

  34. Fixed/Movable Head Disk • Fixed head • One read write head per track • Heads mounted on fixed ridged arm • Movable head • One read write head per side • Mounted on a movable arm

  35. Removable or Not • Removable disk • Can be removed from drive and replaced with another disk • Provides unlimited storage capacity • Easy data transfer between systems • Nonremovable disk • Permanently mounted in the drive

  36. Multiple Platter • One head per side • Heads are joined and aligned • Aligned tracks on each platter form cylinders • Data is striped by cylinder • reduces head movement • Increases speed (transfer rate)

  37. Multiple Platters

  38. Tracks and Cylinders

  39. Floppy Disk • 8”, 5.25”, 3.5” • Small capacity • Up to 1.44Mbyte (2.88M never popular) • Slow • Universal • Cheap • Obsolete?

  40. Computer System Device Example • CPU • Intel : Pentium IV, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad • AMD : Sempron, Athlon, Phenom • Memory • ROM (Nonvolatile) • RAM (Volatile) : SDRAM, DDR1, DDR2, DDR3 • System Interconnections • PCI, MiniPCI • AGP (Graphics) • PCI Express • I/O Module • VGA Adapter • NIC Adapter (LAN Card) • USB • RS-232 (Serial Communication) • I/O Devices • Hard Disk, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM • Flash Disk • Monitor • Keyboard • Mouse • Loud Speaker, Microphone • Bluetooth • Printer • Scanner