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US Presidents

US Presidents

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US Presidents

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  1. US Presidents

  2. George Washington (1789-1797)No party • Economy: Hamilton established BUS • Foreign Policy: • No foreign entanglements (no long term alliances in peacetime) • Jay‘s treaty (British leaves forts on US soil, British damages maritime US losses) • Pinckney‘s Treaty (Spanish clarifies south-western borders, free navigation of Mississippi) • Domestic: • Whiskey Rebellion (force to maintain order) • Political/Legal: • Disliked formation of parties • 2 term limit

  3. John Adams (1797-1801)Federalist • Foreign Policy: • French Revolution • XYZ affair • Convention of 1800, peace w/France, alliance canceled, American to pay damages to American shippers • Domestic: • Alien & Sedition act • Political/Legal: • Cabinet worked against him & w/Hamilton instead

  4. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)Demotic Republican • Economy: • Embargo Act (forbidden exports, tried to get France/Britain to respect US) • Lowered taxes • Eliminated whiskey taz • Non-Intercourse Act– embargo to France/Britain • Foreign Policy: • Louisiana Purchase (1803) • Chesapeake Affair • Domestic: • Lewis & Clark • Cumberland Road authorized • Political/Legal: • Midnight judges (Marbury v. Madison, judicial review)

  5. James Madison (1809-1817)Democratic Republican • Economy: • Macon‘s Bill No2– lifts embargo for first country to repeal certain decrees/orders • Protectionist Tariff of 1816- British goods start flooding US market, first protectionist tariff • First BUS charter ends, not renewed • Foreign Policy: • War of 1812 • Treaty of Ghent– ends War of 1812, „Not one inch of territory ceded or lost“, armistice, Russia needed help

  6. James Madison (cont.) • Domestic: • Battle of Tippecanoe (Tecumseh dies {Indians screwed}, Harrison gets famous) • Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Jackson gets famous) • Battle of New Orleans (Jackson‘s popularity increases) • Cumberland Road construction begins • Vetoes Bonus Bill (internal improvements should be done by state) • Political/Legal: • Fletcher v. Peck (legislatures could not mess w/contracts)

  7. James Monroe Democratic Republican • Economy: • Second BUS • Panic of 1897- wildcat banks, too much land speculation • Foreign Policy: • Monroe Doctrine– hands off American continent • Russo-American Treaty of 1824- Russia leaves Oregon • Rush-Bagot agreement- stopped naval build-up on Great Lakes • Treaty of 1818- fixed northern boundary of Louisiana • Spain cedes Florida in exchange for Mexico

  8. James Monroe (cont.) • Domestic: • Jackson invades Florida • Missouric Compromise (slave below 36‘30, admit Maine/Missouri) • Political/Legal: • Gibbons v. Ogden- states couldn‘t regulate interstate commerce • Dartmouth College v. Woodward– states can‘t mess w/contracts

  9. John Q. AdamsDemocratic Republican • Economy: • Tariff of Abominations • Domestic: • Corrupt bargain, Clay becomes Secretary of State • Political/Legal: • Henry Clay throws election to Adams

  10. Andrew JacksonDemocrat • Economy: • Pet banks, pulls money out of BUS • Vetoes vote to recharter BUS • Tariff of 1832- lower than Abomination, but seemed more permanent • Compromise Tariff of 1833 • Foreign Policy: • Texas wins independence

  11. Andrew Jackson (cont.) • Domestic: • Indian Removal Act • Maysville Road veto- strict construction • Specie Circular- attempted to discourage land spec., paid hard money for hard land • Calhoun (VP) writes South Carolina Exposition, in response to Tariff of Abomination • Hayne/Webster debate • Political/Legal: • Spoils system

  12. Martin Van BurenDemocrat • Economy: • Panic of 1837- screwed Buren over • Independent Treasury • Foreign Policy: • Recognizes Republic of Texas, but doesn‘t annex • Domestic: • Political/Legal:

  13. William Henry Harrison Whig • Domestic: • Personality campaign • Political/Legal: • Longest speech, shortest term

  14. John TylerWhig • Economy: • Vetoed bank bills • Vetoed a tariff bill • Foreign Policy: • Webster-Ashburton treaty– Maine border dispute • Texas annexed • Political/Legal: • The non-Whiggy Whig

  15. James K. Polk • Economy: • Tariff-for-revenue Bill– lowered average rates from 32% to 25% • Foreign Policy: • „Fifty-four forty or fight“, but didn‘t fight • War w/Mexico– got disputed land of Texas and California • Domestic: • CA, OR, Tariff, Independent Treasury • California gold rush 1848

  16. Zachary TaylorWhig • Domestic: • Doesn‘t want Compromise of 1850

  17. Millard Fillmore • Domestic: • Wants Compromise of 1850 (CA free, Fugitive Slave Act)

  18. Franklin PierceDemocrat • Foreign Policy: • Ostend Manifesto- sent diplomats to try to get Cuba from Spain but Northerners found & failed • Gadsden Purchase- create Pacific RR and brought land from Mexico • Domestic: • Kansas-Nebraska Act- Nebraska: free, Kansas: slave but northerners came into Kansas (caused formation of Republicans)

  19. James Buchanan • Economy: • Financial crash of 1857 – North was hardest hit and south thought they could live without the north (King Cotton) • Tariff of 1857 – lowest tariff since 1812 rate 20% Northerners complained, fincancial crisis struck soon after • Domestic: • John Brown- martyr for anti-slavery forces; killed pro-slavery person in Kansas • Lincoln-Douglas debates • Political/Legal: • Dred Scott v. Sanford= slaves were considered to be property & couldn’t sue in federal courts

  20. Abraham LincolnRepublican • Domestic: • Civil War • Emancipation Proclamation • Crittenden compromise – below 36’30 would be slave above would be free; Lincoln struch it down • Freedmen‘s Bureau – education & land for blacks • Political/Legal: • Suspend civil liberties during war

  21. Andrew JohnsonDemocrat • Economy: • National Labor Union appears (dies under Grant) • Foreign Policy: • Seward buys Alaska • Midway Islands annexed • Political/Legal: • 13th Amendment (free slaves) • Civil Rights Act (citizenship & no black codes) • 14th Amendment (citizenship) • Impeached but acquitted in Senate

  22. Take out your Presidents charts

  23. Ulysses GrantRepublican • Economy: • Panic of 1873 – RR speculation • Tariff of 1870, ‚72, ‚75 – lowered rates and expanded free list • Resumption Act – redeem govt loans in hard currency (step away from bimetallism) • Domestic: • Political corruption (Credit Mobilier scandal, Tweed Ring, Whiskey Ring) • Freedmen‘s Bureau expires • Political/Legal: • 15th Am. (voting) • Force acts (guarantee voting for blacks) • Civil Rights Act of 1875 (full and equal accomodations, ruled unconstitutional by SC)

  24. Rutherford B. HayesRepublican • Economy: • Bland-Allison Act– Treasury buys silver & makes silver dollars (continued bimetallism) • Domestic: • Hayes-Tilden standoff  Compromise of 1877, end of military reconstruction • Desert Land Act – gave land to those who would irrigate for 3 years

  25. James Garfield Republican • Assassinated by “deranged office seeker,” led to Pendleton Act

  26. Chester ArthurRepublican • Economy: Tariff of 1875- continued protectionist principles • Foreign Policy: • Chinese Exclusion Act • Political/Legal: • Pendleton Act (led to downfall of patronage) • Civil Rights Act of 1875 ruled unconstitutional

  27. Grover ClevelandDemocrat • Economy: • Interstate Commerce Act – rein in RRs (but commissioners were all RR people, so nothing happened) • Knights of Labor dissolved • Foreign Policy: • Dawes Severalty Act – largely destroys Indian govts • Political/Legal: • Wabash case – defeat for populists who wanted to control railways

  28. Benjamin HarrisonRepublican • Economy: • McKinley Tariff – highest tariff in American history until then (48%) • Sherman Anti-Trust Act – prohibited combinaitons in restraint of trade ... Would be used to target unions though • Foreign Policy: • Pan-American conference – worked w/Latin America to establish treaties on trade

  29. Benjamin Harrison (cont.) • Domestic: • „Billion Dollar Congress“ • Frontier line disappears • Pension Act 1890 – gave money to veterans (too much money coming in) • Hull House – helped immigrants • US Forest Service est. by Forest Reserve Act • Political/Legal: • Populists organized

  30. Grover ClevelandDemocrat • Economy: • Panic of 1893 (blamed on Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which would be repealed) • Foreign Policy: • Hawaii revolts, but Cleveland refuses to annex • Domestic: • Labor unrest (Pullman strike) • Political/Legal: • Plessy v. Ferguson – „separate but equal“

  31. Take out your presidents chart • DO NOT MOVE THE DESKS

  32. DBQ re-writes due MONDAY, May 14

  33. William McKinley Republican • Economy: • Dingley Tariff – highest of all time, McKinley says „greatest piece of republican legislation“ (though he had campaigned on lower tariffs!) • Gold Standard Act – stopped bimetallism • Foreign Policy: • USS Maine sunk • Imperialism • Open Door note • Domestic: • Yellow journalism (hyped Maine)

  34. Theodore RooseveltRepublican • Economy: • Northern Securities case – he didn‘t want trusts out of control • Panic of 1907 („Roosevelt Panic“) • Foreign Policy: • Panama Canal • Expansionism – Platt Amendment (Cubans got independence in name only) • Roosevelt Corollary (Big Stick)

  35. Theodore Roosevelt (cont.) • Domestic: • 3 C‘s– conservation, consumer, corporations • Hepburn Act – no free passes & strengthens ICC • Regulations: Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act • Political/Legal: • Lochner v. New York- can‘t limit # of working hrs • Gentlemen‘s Agreement w/Japan • Muller v. Oregon – women‘s working hrs can be restricted

  36. William H. TaftRepublican • Economy: • Payne-Aldrich Tariff– Taft didn‘t lower tariffs • US Steel prosecution- angered TR • Foreign Policy: • Dollar diplomacy • Domestic: • NAACP forms • Ballinger-Pinchot Affair – disagreement between TR & Taft

  37. Woodrow WilsonDemocrat • Economy: • Underwood Tariff– lowered tariff • Federal Reserve Act • Clayton Antitrust Act– outlawed price discrimination, allowed labor unions • FTC established • LaFollette Seamen’s Act • Worker’s Compensation Act • Adamson’s Act- 8 hr workday for interstate RR workers (same wages as 10 hr day) • Keating-Owens Act– federal child labor law • War Revenue Act– graduated income tax

  38. Woodrow WilsonDemocrat • Foreign policy: • Tries to stay out of WWI • Russian Rev. (US doesn’t recognize for 16 years) • Treaty of Versailles– Fourteen Points • League of Nations • Red Scare– Sacco & Vanzetti

  39. Woodrow Wilson Democrat • Domestic • Triple Wall of Privilege (tarriff, banks, trusts) • Selective Service Act– WWI draft • War Industries Board– took control of war industries • Harlem Renaissance • Political/legal • 16th Amendment- income tax • 17th Amendment- direct election of senators • Appoints Jew to Supreme Court • Schenck v. US– 1st Am. restricted during war • 18th Amendment- prohibition • 19th Amendment- woman suffrage

  40. TAKE OUT YOUR PRESIDENTS CHART • DBQ re-writes (if you failed) due MONDAY, May 14 • TUESDAY, May 15 for 6thpd` • If you haven’t written yours yet, try to come in today after school

  41. Warren G. HardingRepublican • Economic: • Emergency tariff of 1921– saved farmers • Fordney-McCumber tariff– blatantly protective tariff • Foreign Policy: • Separate peace w/ Germany • Domestic: • Veterans Bureau • Emergency Quota Act • Scandals: Teapot Dome, Veteran Bureau • KKK revived

  42. Calvin CoolidgeRepublican • Foreign Policy • Kellogg-Briand Pact– outlaws war • Domestic • Snyder Act of 1924- American Indians get citizenship • Immigration Act of 1924- similar to Emergency Quota Act • Soldier’s Bonus Act- bonus to soldiers • Political/ legal • Scopes trial- evolution trial • First female state governor

  43. Herbert HooverRepublican • Economy • Stock market crash • Reconstruction Finance Corporation- gave loans to businesses (trickle-down) • Norris LaGuardia Anti-Injection Act- no yellow-dog contracts • Glass-Steagall Act- created FDIC, insured deposits in banks • Foreign Policy • Appeasement towards Japan (Manchuria) & Germany • Debt Moratorium- slowed repayment on loans from European nations • Domestic • Bonus Army– veterans march on Washington, dispersed by military force

  44. Franklin RooseveltDemocrat • Economy: • Hundred Days Congress • TVA • Agricultural Adjustment Act (paid to not grow crops) • Bank holiday • Good Neighbor policy- stopped armed intervention in Latin America • US off gold standard- allowed for inflation of dollar • Civilian Conservation Corps- young men work in forest, send earnings to family • Federal Emergency Relief Act- direct $ to civilians • Federal Securities Act- regulated stock market • …

  45. Franklin RooseveltDemocrat • Economy (continued) • Indian Reorganization Act– more pol. & eco. Freedom • National Housing Act- fed. Housing administration, homes for cheap • Works Progress Administration- provided $ for public works • Wagner Act- National Labor Relations Board est. • Social Security- pay money to retired people • Soil Conservation Act- replaces AAA • Fair Labor Standards Act- minimum wage & maximum hours

  46. Franklin RooseveltDemocrat • Foreign Policy • Neutrality Acts • Munich Conference- appeases Germany • Cash & carry • Lend-lease Act • Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact • Atlantic Charter (if US enters war, Europe would be first) • Tehran conference- “Big Three” meet, open 2nd front in Europe

  47. Franklin RooseveltDemocrat • Domestic • GI Bill • Fair Employment Practices Commission- no discrimination in war industry • War Production Board (WPB)- controlled production

  48. Franklin RooseveltDemocrat • Political/Legal • 20th Amendment- shortens lame duck period • 21st Amendment- prohibition ends • “court-packing”- no messing w/SC • Korematsu v. US- internment legal

  49. TAKE OUT YOUR PRESIDENTS CHART • **Let Mrs. Davoust know if you have food allergies (esp. nuts)!

  50. Harry TrumanDemocrat • Economy • Employment Act- fed. govt. responsible for economy • Taft-Hartley Act- no closed shop (can’t be forced to join union) • Fair Deal • Foreign Policy • Potsdam Conference- expanded on Yalta conference • Nuremburg Trials- warcrime trial • Churchill’s Iron Curtain • Truman Doctrine • Marshall Plan • Containment policy • Berlin Airlift • NATO (North Atlantic TREATY Organization, not trade)