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Needs Theory

Crystal Pullman and Lindsay Bairos. Needs Theory. Abraham Maslow. Abraham Maslow. Abraham Maslow was born in 1908 in New York to a Jewish couple from Russia. He had six brothers and sisters, and had two daughters of his own with his wife, and first cousin, Bertha Goodman.

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Needs Theory

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  1. Crystal Pullman and Lindsay Bairos Needs Theory Abraham Maslow

  2. Abraham Maslow • Abraham Maslow was born in 1908 in New York to a Jewish couple from Russia. • He had six brothers and sisters, and had two daughters of his own with his wife, and first cousin, Bertha Goodman. • He began his postsecondary education at the City College of New York, he studied Law. • After he got married, they moved to Wisconsin for his BA (1930), MA (1931), and PhD (1934) in psychology from the University of Wisconsin. • He died June 28, 1970 of a heart attack.

  3. Career and Theory Background • Maslow first began working with monkeys early in his career, conducting research on their behaviour with Harry Harlow (known for his work on attachment behaviour with rhesus monkeys). • He noticed that some needs take precedence, for example one will quench their thirst before satisfying their hunger. This discovery started him on the theory which we now call the Needs Theory. • He taught full time at Brooklyn College from 1937 until 1951, when he began serving as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis, where he remained for 18 years.

  4. Needs Theory

  5. Need #1: Physiological • These include many different needs, such as the needs for oxygen and water, vitamins and minerals, as well as maintaining body temperature and pH balance. They also include the needs to be active, get rid of waste, and to avoid pain. • Maslow believed that a lack of one of these needs would lead an individual to want things that in the past has provided it, such as milk provides calcium.

  6. Need #2: Safety and Security • These needs are secondary to the physiological needs. • After those needs are satisfied, individuals feel the need to find themselves in safe and stable conditions, to seek protection, structure. • For example, people prefer safe neighbourhoods, and good retirement plans. 

  7. Need #3: Love and Belonging • This is the third layer of needs, which include the need for friends, spouse, and children. • Within our society, we show these needs by wanting to marry and have a family, or joining groups such as a baseball team or a church. 

  8. Need #4: Esteem • The first includes the need for the respect of others, for status and attention, appreciation, dominance and dignity. • The second includes the need for self-respect, confidence, competence, and freedom. • Supposedly, this higher version of esteem is harder to lose once an individual has satisfied these needs.

  9. Top of Pyramid: Self Actualization • 2% of the population is working on this level • Autonomy, deeper personal relations, reality and problem-centered, feel that the end doesn’t always justify the means. • Sense of humility and respect, human kinship, spontaneity and simplicity, and have strong ethics. They often suffer from guilt and anxiety. • Needs: truth, goodness, beauty, unity, aliveness, uniqueness, perfection, completion, justice and order, simplicity, effortlessness, self-sufficiency, and meaningfulness. • These needs only become important to fulfill once the basic needs are met.

  10. Salient Needs • These are referred to as deficit of needs. • These operate on the idea of homeostasis, according to Maslow. (When you have a need (salient), i.e. hunger, you want to eat (fulfilled). • These needs are instinctive — he called them instinctoid needs. • He believed we move through these needs like stages, but that it is possible to regress—for example a divorce can leave you longing for love.

  11. Neuroses • This last pyramid is Maslow’s understanding of neurosis. • He believes that your experiences when you are younger affect your current behaviour. • For example, if your parents were divorced when you were young, and now have a wonderful spouse, you expect that you’re not good enough.

  12. Application in the Classroom • Maslow’s Needs Theory has several points for teachers • A student will not be able to fulfill their need for knowledge if another, more immediate need, is present. • For example, the students that arrive without a lunch will likely be hungry, which will inhibit their ability to learn. • Students who face other problems at school, such as bullies, or ostracism, will be unable to focus on schoolwork. • The student who has done poorly in the past, and has been told (perhaps by teachers, parents, siblings or classmates) that they are unable to do well, will begin to believe it inherently. It is necessary that the teacher be gentle and help them overcome the fear of failure.

  13. Application in Special Education • Behaviour and Learning Disabled students – Needs for self-esteem, confidence, encouragement, belonging, and safety. • Gifted students – Need for esteem and perhaps self-actualization. • Physically disabled students – Need for physiological and safety. • From parents and teachers, making friends, doing well in school and praises

  14. Application in Sara Porter’s case • Discussion • How does Maslow’s Theory applied to Sara Porter’s case?

  15. From a journal article by Anne Wescott Dodd From a journal by Anne Wescott Dodd, “Are Higher Standards and Students’ Needs Compatible?” • Abraham Maslow's work on motivation is a successful first step for principals to use as they work with teachers to make schools better for students. • Maslow's hierarchy needs proposes that people must fulfill their "deficiency" needs, such as physiological and safety needs, before they can move toward development and success in education. • Lower-level needs must be met before students can be motivated to learn. • Students cannot learn if they feel threatened in their school environment, they must have their safety needs met.

  16. From a journal article by Anne Wescott Dodd • If steps are taken to make school safer, such as installing metal detectors or hiring security guards, this may make students feel like criminals. Therefore, the students won’t be inspired to work hard in class. • There is a difference between feeling secure and feeling safe. Metal detectors and officers will make the school secure but the students may not feel safe. • Principals must work hard to make their school more secure. They need to ensure that students feel safe, valued, and capable. • Schools should be a comfortable and welcoming place where students can achieve their goals. They are more likely to learn because they want to learn.

  17. Maslow’s Ideas on How to Improve Education • Basic needs must be satisfied for each student. • Embrace each student’s uniqueness. • Be happy and cheerful in all kinds of situations. • Be genuine to all students. • Assist student to find their vocation. • Understand that life is precious. • Revitalize the student’s consciousness; be grateful for the good things in life. • Transcend cultural conditioning and help students become world citizens – Global Education, Citizenship Education, and Transformation.

  18. References • Lefrancois, Guy (2000). Psychology for Teaching, 10th Edition. Toronto: Thomson and Nelson. • Woscott, Anne. “Are Higher Standards and Students’ Needs Compatible?”  Principal Leadership (Middle School Ed.) 1 no1 28-32 S 2000. • Boeree, Dr. C. George. Personality Theories: Abraham Maslow. 1998—2004. [Online] http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/ maslow.html. December 9, 2005 • Norwood, G. (1999). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Truth Vectors (Part I). Retrieved January 2006, from  http://www.deepermind.com/20maslow.htm • PBS. A Science Odyssey. People and Discoveries: Abraham Maslow. 1998. [Online] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/ databank/entries/bhmasl.html. January 2, 2005. • Video http://faculty.weber.edu/tlday/HUMAN.DEVELOPMENT/humanism.html

  19. Questions for Comprehension • As a future teacher, we will be faced with many different situations in our classrooms. If a student forgot their lunch and was hungry throughout the day, how might this affect their learning? • If a student of yours was a victim of bullying, how would you deal with this situation? *Keep in mind that their safety needs may not be met for this situation. • How do you feel about making schools safer? (Give examples of how it could be accomplished)

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