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  3. Brand • Brand Name • Trademark • Brand Personality • Brand Equity (Top Brand Equities) • Develop – Brand in a class of products • Link – Brand with emotional connection • Help – customers believe what you want them to believe about your brand Kanye West Branding

  4. Types of Brand Strategies • Manufacturer Brand • Intermediary Brand • Generic Brand

  5. Manufacturer Brand • Multi-Product Branding • When a manufacturer uses one name for all its products • Strong promotional campaign can be developed to create an image for all products • Ex. All Nike products carry the Nike name • Brand extension is another strategy which uses an existing brand name for an improved or new product in the product line

  6. Multi-Branding • Each product in a product line has a distinctive name • Used for products that target different customers • Advantages: • Each product has its own distinctive image • If product fails, its failure does note effect other products made by manufacturer • Disadvantages: • Cost of creating separate promotional plans for each product can be expensive

  7. Combines one or more brands to increase customer loyalty and sales for each product Two different manufacturers may partner to produce one product Works well when products compliment each other Ex. Nationwide Series Co-branding reinforces both of the products in the eyes of consumers Co-Branding

  8. Intermediary Brand

  9. Generic Brands

  10. Develop Brand Names • Offer a benefit • Be simple • Be different and positive • Reflect an image • Be previously unregistered

  11. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Objectives • Discuss product licensing and how licensed goods are merchandised • Explain the importance of sports sponsorships and endorsements • Discuss how companies choose sports endorsers for their products 12

  12. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Licensing and Merchandising • Sports teams and athletes may have licensing agreements with product manufacturer • Licensing is an agreement that gives a company the right to use another’s brand name, patent, or other intellectual property for a royalty or fee • The licensor is the company or individual granting the license • The licensee is the company or individual paying for the rights to use the licensor’s name or property • Licensed merchandise can bear the name, logo, or other characteristics of the licensor 13

  13. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Licensing and Merchandising Licensed Products • A company may pay a fee to use a league’s, team’s, or individual’s name, image, or logo on a product or on the product’s packaging • College sports teams also have licensing agreements with product manufacturing • Advantages for sports organizations and companies: 14

  14. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Licensing and Merchandising The Products • Licensing agreements can apply to just about any product imaginable • Ex. Apparel, key chains, toys, sports equipment, etc. • Licensor must be careful to select products that reflect the image its brand name has in the public eye • If licensing agreement is with a company that produces poor-quality merchandise, the licensor’s image may be damaged • Ex. Licensed products carrying the Olympic logo are viewed positively 15

  15. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Licensing and Merchandising Merchandising Licensed Goods Retail stores promote the fact that they carry licensed goods Special promotional deals create partnerships between licensor and licensee to help boost store traffic and retail sales of licensed products Ex. Athlete Signs Autographs at store Some licensed products are used as promotional incentives for customers to buy a product Video’s for subscription to SI • Most licensed merchandise in the past were only available the event venue • Many channels are used today to distribute products now: • Department stores • Chain stores • League-sponsored retail outlets • Internet • Organization owned Web sites and retail stores 16

  16. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements • Two forms of licensing: • Sponsorships • Ex. Olympics • Endorsements • Ex. NASCAR 17

  17. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Sponsorships • Sports events generate income from broadcast rights, ticket sales, merchandising, and sponsorships • Sponsorships are the promotional vehicles that financially support sports events • All major sports organizations use sponsorships to help finance their operations • Promotional packages for sponsors may include: • Licensing rights, stadium promotions, products, free tickets, etc. • Additional benefits may include exposure to sponsor’s products through use by the athletes or the organization Ex. NFL and Nike 18

  18. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Importance of Sponsorships • Sports organizations need the money generated from corporate sponsors to help pay their significant costs and expenses • Sponsorship benefits corporations by: • Exposure of their products through their promotional efforts and free publicity • Sports events can be used to target consumers and promote products • Corporate image can be enhanced and sales revenue can increase through association with event • Sponsorship can be seen in promotional activities 19

  19. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Types of Sponsorship • Can be flexible • Sponsor a team for length of time • Sponsor just an event • Sponsor just a portion of an event (Halftime show, Pre-game show) • Strategies integrate the company name into the game itself, providing a form of direct advertising 20

  20. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Types of Sponsorship Signage • Sponsor names that appear on scoreboards, floorboards, rafters, etc. in a stadium or arena • Purchased by sponsors, provides direct advertising for sponsors without paying for airtime 21

  21. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Premium Sponsors • Companies pay more to be the official or title sponsor • Receives more options and opportunities • Examples: • Entitlements – There is only one major sponsor for an event • NASCAR Sprint Cup Series • PGA entitlement sponsorship for almost all of it’s tour events 22

  22. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Premium Sponsors • Examples – cont.: • Facility Entitlements – company purchases the promotional rights to an entire stadium • Stadiums/Arenas are renamed to publicize their sponsorships • The sponsor receives exposure in all the events that are held at the stadium during the season and off-season 23

  23. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Premium Sponsors • Examples – cont.: • Product Exclusivity– only one product in a product category is granted sponsorship • Prevents competitors from selling or promoting their products during the sponsored events • On-site merchandising that excludes the competition results in increased profits, as well as exposure of sponsored products 24

  24. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Endorsements -2014 Top Endorsers • A statement of approval of a product, service, or idea made by an individual or organization speaking on behalf of the advertiser • Involves using a celebrity or public figure to represent and promote a company and that company’s products • Sports figures image is used in print, broadcast media, product packaging, billboards, and collectibles • May require a set number of public appearances at various events sponsored by the company • Sports figure lends familiarity and credibility to the product

  25. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Endorsements Association • Endorsement that involves an association with the product • No direct relationship between product and athlete, but association will help sell product • Successful athletes who project a positive image will be used Demographic Match • Company choose sports figure who matches the demographic profile of its customer base Successful Careers • Top sports endorsers come from all sports and all have successful careers or look to have promising careers • Some sports celebrities are so outstanding that companies create product lines using their name

  26. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sponsorships and Endorsements Endorsements – cont. Image • Products sell when the endorser has a positive image and is popular • Sports celebrities who endorse products of major companies must be role models in the public eye • Most endorsement contracts have clauses in them that will release the company from the contract if that celebrity’s image is tainted due to problems with the law or athletic performance • Companies do not want its products associated with a person who is not seen as a positive role model

  27. Section 7.2 – Licensing – Sports Appeal • Companies associate their products will well-known sports organizations to reach new customers and strengthen their relationship with their existing customers • Through licensing, sponsorships, or endorsements, companies can generate positive publicity and achieve their marketing goals of increasing brand awareness and sales. 28