Kennings - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kennings

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  1. Kennings

  2. Appositives An appositive is a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or give additional information. • My friend Paulo sends me long letters from Brazil. • The appositive Paulo identifies the noun friend. ~ Renaming ~

  3. Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is an appositive plus any words that modify the appositive. • He is living and working in Harrisburg, the capital city. • The appositive phrase, in bold type, identifies Harrisburg. ~ Renaming ~

  4. Kennings are often appositive phrases. Example: HROTHGAR, helmet-of-Scyldings, spake: “… • Helmet-of-Scyldings renames Hrothgar. • He protects his people as a helmet protects the head.

  5. What phrase renames the dragon? Then for the third time that folk-destroyer, fire-dread dragon, rushed on the hero, where room allowed, battle-grim, burning.

  6. What part of speech is fire-dread? Then for the third time that folk-destroyer, fire-dreaddragon, rushed on the hero, where room allowed, battle-grim, burning. Note: • The kenning, folk-destroyer, functions as a noun. • Fire-dreaddescribes what kind of dragon this is rather than renaming it.

  7. What renames the fight that resulted? Now I turn to Grendel and say in full how the fight resulted, hand-fray of heroes. When heaven’s jewel had fled o’er far fields, that fierce sprite came, night-foe savage, to seek us out where safe and sound we sentried the hall.

  8. Kennings rename, even when not in the appositive. Now I turn to Grendel and say in full how the fight resulted, hand-fray of heroes. When heaven’s jewel had fled o’er far fields, that fierce sprite came, night-foe, to seek us out where safe and sound we sentried the hall.

  9. Metonymy • meta  change • nym  name i.e. rename Example: Refer to the king as the crown.

  10. The analogy doesn’t always work! The battle-king, said he,far o’er the swan-road he wants to seek,the noble monarch who needed men! • Battle-king refers to Hrothgar, the monarch who needs men. • But it’s not completely metaphoric: Hrothgar is king.

  11. The analogy doesn’t always work! Ring-giver • Refers to king • Because he gives rewards, not necessarily rings But the king is actually a giver.