Download
lecture 20 spatial decision support systems sdss n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lecture 20 Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lecture 20 Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS)

Lecture 20 Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS)

899 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Lecture 20 Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Lecture 20Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) Outline: Introduction Principles and theory Examples Online SDSS GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  2. Introduction • The ultimate application? OR... is this where the previous 9 (or 19) lectures have been leading? • Use of GIS for environmental applications includes: 1. data management 2. characterisation and assessment 3. modelling and spatial analysis 4. management and decision support • Applications 1 thru 3 culminate in 4... the end use? GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  3. Application or decision support? • An application may end at any point • CORINE, GRID, GEMS, etc. end at 1 • descriptive/mapping exercise and EA may end at 2 • predictive modelling exercise may end at 3 • BUT they must all start at 1 and work through these stages in sequence • The ultimate end application must be decision making (i.e. management) and use in support of decisions made GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  4. Aims of EnvSci • Aims of environmental science: • to accumulate knowledge pertaining to the environment? • to understand environmental processes and linkages? • Objectives of environmental science: • gather data pertaining to environmental phenomena and processes via empirical investigation? • to develop theories encompassing environmental themes? • i.e. to gain understanding and insight through study GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  5. Aims of EnvMan • Aims of environmental management: • to prevent environmental deterioration and degradation? • to promote sustainable use of the environment? • to prevent over use or exploitation of natural resources? • to preserve environmental diversity? • Objectives of environmental management: • to control the environment and/or our influences upon the environment via direct or indirect action? • i.e. putting environmental science to work! GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  6. Decision making or support? • Decision making vs decision support • GIS can provide certain tools for assisting in the decision making process • i.e.maps/displays as means of visualising the problem • overlays as means of defining relationships • modelling as means of predicting outcomes • etc GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  7. …the answer • GIS functions on their own are NOT decision making tools... • (i.e. they only ASSIST in the decision making process) • ...therefore, GIS is not a decision making tool, it is a decision SUPPORT tool GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  8. Decision making • Decision making: • a decision is a choice between alternatives to meet specific objectives • the alternatives may represent: • different courses of action • different hypotheses • different use of a geographical entity • etc. GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  9. Decision objectives • Objectives are governed by management goals and in turn determine the range of alternatives • e.g. identify areas of high risk in soil erosion example in order to address the goal of preventing soil erosion • resulting alternatives may be different maps representing different management plans • Process governing the way decisions between alternatives are made is the “decision rule” GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  10. Conflict! Making decisions to meet specific objectives often involves CONFLICT Solving these conflicts is the art of good decision making GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  11. Why GIS is not decision making • GIS is not a decision making tool kit • to make (good) decisions requires: • knowledge & foresight • insight & intelligence • expertise, etc. • i.e. rational choice between alternatives (especially where conflicts are present) • GIS does not provide the above, BUT it can fulfil important role in decision making by providing decision support GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  12. Decision support is… • Decision support: • role of aiding the decision making process • simplest level: • expert advice regarding a decision between alternatives • most complex level: • dedicated computer systems • i.e. decision support systems (DSS) GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  13. Definition of a DSS • In general terms, DSS are: • computer-based systems • dedicated to a restricted but well defined area of application • systems incorporating modelling and analysis with data and database management systems • systems which do not make decisions, but facilitate logistics of decision making process • interactive systems that help decision maker systematise decision making process • providers of custom-built information • providers of user-friendly GUI with short response times GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  14. Developing Spatial DSS • The role of GIS? • GIS is an INCREDIBLY USEFUL tool • GIS toolbox can be used to develop SDSS • SDSS retain the general characteristics of basic DSS but in addition they include: • spatial data input capabilities • storage of complex structures common in spatial data • analytical techniques unique to spatial data • cartographic output GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  15. Basic SDSS structure Models G.I.S Database User Interface User: expert knowledge GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  16. GIS as SDSS? • GIS fits nicely with additional requirements of a SDSS, but still does not meet the overall requirements of a DSS • GIS do not include expert knowledge • GIS do not possess artificial intelligence (AI) • GIS have only limited spatial analysis functionality • GIS are not very user friendly • GIS are not dedicated systems GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  17. Question… • How can we address these short-comings of GIS in developing SDSS? GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  18. Example: nuclear waste disposal • Example of a facilities location exercise involving multiple and conflicting criteria • ideal example application for a SDSS from initial site survey through to public inquiry • problem has been approached by NIREX since 1981 and they are now on their fifth attempt • four previous failures due to poor information, poor public communication, obsession with engineering issues, etc. • why didn't they listen to me? GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  19. Nuclear waste… the problem GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  20. Nuclear waste disposal… how? GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  21. A GIS approach… • Basic GIS/MCE site search: • identify screening (constraint) factors and their threshold criteria and use map overlay to identify areas satisfying above constraints • identify multiple site-based factors on which to optimise • establish weighting scheme for factors • run MCE routine to identify optimal or near-optimal sites • run sensitivity analyses and identify final sites • pass the buck! GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  22. Advantages… • Advantages of such an approach are: • good at deterministic area screening • provides an application framework for MCE • MCE provides GIS with spatial analysis functionality • provides a rational and objective approach GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  23. Nuclear waste disposal… where? GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  24. Role of SDSS • SDSS may be used throughout the site selection decision making process as follows: • aiding initial decision making process • public information, consultation and participation • decision support at public inquiry GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  25. Online SDSS • If public participation is goal then need to: • maximise access to data and tools • maximise scope for public participation • at all stages of planning process • at all stages of decision process • Utilise web-based GIS for SDSS GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  26. Examples web-based SDSS • Virtual Slaithwaite • WOODS • Nuclear waste siting • Wilderness mapping GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  27. Conclusions • SDSS is utlimate end application of environmental GIS • development of GIS-based SDSS • online SDSS GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment

  28. Practical • Running online SDSS • Run the eMapScholar online GIS exercise • http://www.ccg.leeds.ac.uk/teaching/nuclearwaste/ • You must: • Complete the full exercise • Fill in the profile form • Fill in the feedback form GEOG2750 – Earth Observation and GIS of the Physical Environment