Let the journey begin….. THE RESEARCH PAPER
What is a research paper? • A research paper is a carefully planned essay that shares information or proves a point.
Choose a topic • What do you already know about that topic? • Create a Research Question • DO THE RESEARCH • Begin organizing your information • Create an outline for your paper • Write a first draft of your paper • Revise and edit your draft • Type final draft • Create a Works Consulted and cover page • Reflect on your research
Hardest part…picking the topic Pick three topics from the list provided and write them down Take a few minutes and list everything you know about the topics Choosing the topic
The chosen topic Ask yourself and write down: • Why am I interested in this topic? • What will I want to learn from this paper? • Why am I choosing this topic? • What will I learn from this topic?
General: Genocide Focus: Genocide in Somalia and the effects on citizens in the country General: American views on war Focus: Vietnam: before and after the conflict Choosing and Narrowing a Topic
This is the first part of your paper! You have been brainstorming and essentially started writing your paper!
Begin by writing some basic questions you would like to answer in you paper. • Any time you find information that answers a question, take notes on it. Searching Tips
Taking Notes • Direct quote- copies information verbatim • Paraphrase • Summarize
A paraphrase is your “translation” of the source text in YOUR OWN words. A paraphrase is about the same length as the source. Paraphrasing
A summary condenses the ideas from the source in a briefer version. It should be very short. summarizing
You must document these in your paper. When in doubt, always make sure you document. Seriously. Even if it is after every sentence… rule
Since 1969, when Tolkien sold the rights to Houghton Mifflin, more than 100 million Tolkien books have been sold worldwide and merchandising was in its infancy (Zellar 23). Example:
TYPES of INFORMATION • Original sources: Diary Person Event Survey Etc. • Not original sources: Magazine article Web site Encyclopedia, journal, etc. Documentary PRIMARY SECONDARY
Is the information current? • Is the information complete? • Is the information accurate? • Is the source an expert? • Is your source biased? Evaluating the information
MLA Documentation - Source and note cards - Works consulted - Parenthetical documentation Giving proper credit
Peer-reviewed or scholarly sources by professional experts in the field • General Audience sources for non-experts • Cosmopolitan, Newsweek • English Journal, Journal of American Medical Association, Cell Types of sources
5 Olsen, Shawn M. Chocolate Lover’s Guide. Hayti: Charger Publishing, 1987. Title of book Author’s name Year published Publishing company City published Notice the periods after the author’s name, the title of the book, and the end of the source.
2 Heck, Alice M., Kosmo M. Haley, and James G. Winn. “Further Analysis of the Llama’s Sleeping patterns.” Zoo Psychology 6 (2007): 215-240. Names in ABC order Quoted article name Underlined journal Notice the periods after the author’s name, the title of the book, and the end of the source. Volume, year, page numbers for the article
7 World History Fact Book 2004-2005. Dec. 2004. World University. 9 Aug. 2005 <http://factbook.worldu.edu/fbook04/emroll/fall.shtm l>. Name of Institution and/or author Publication date Period at end of website. Date accessed Notice the website address is in brackets and NOT underlined or different color.
Record details, information, quotations • Record page number where information can be found • Use descriptive wording or headings at top On a note card,
5 Delicious ways to enjoy chocolate -a handful of chocolate chips -chocolate ice cream with Hershey's syrup -“Chocolate/chocolate cake at Café is the BEST!” -Ghiradelli hot chocolate -homemade brownies Remember, to keep the number from the source to keep everything in order. Take notes on the index card.
5 2 “The average American consumes approximately 11.7 pounds of chocolate each year” (26). The “2” beside the “5” keeps the cards in order. You can have many cards for one source. Make sure you write down page number
Write everything you have learned over the past three days on your topic. I want HALF a page. Journal
The Roman Numerals (I, II, III) designate paragraphs and main topics for paragraphs. The capital letters (A, B, C) give information about the paragraph’s main topic. The numbers (1, 2, 3) give specific details about the information. You may have more than just an A and B main topic. Use as many letters as necessary to cover your information. Same rule goes for numbers. Use as many as you need. MLA Format for an Outline:
Two-point rule: If you have an A, you must have a B. If you have a 1, you must have a 2.
Where do I start? • Gather all your research or notes on the topic • Review it all and decide what your research/information is telling you about your topic. • Begin to select the information and in what order you want to present it.
Introductory Paragraph: Two Main Components First: You must introduce your paper on a broad scale in the first few sentences. For example, you may use an anecdote (story) or an intriguing statistic to engage your reader. Second: You must transition from your broad anecdote (story) or statistic to a more precise statement that provides a blueprint for your entire research paper— your paper’s working thesis statement!
Your Introduction Visual Reference Engage your reader here. Provide a brief anecdote or an interesting statistic from your research that will catch the reader’s attention. Smoothly transition between introductory anecdote and thesis statement. Your thesis statement should be the last sentence or last two sentences of your introductory paragraph. This is the “blueprint” for your body paragraphs.
Teenagers in many American cities have been involved in more gangs in the last five years than ever before. These gangs of teens have been committing a lot of violent crimes. The victims of these crimes are both gang members and people outside of gangs. Many people do not want to travel to areas in our cities because of the danger from this problem. For this terrible situation to stop, it is going to take a combined effort on the part of many people. Excellent, supervised after-school programs, more jobs available for teens, and healthy family relationships will go a long way towards ending this crisis in our society.
During the Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East there was much armed conflict between Christians and Muslims. Christians called these conflicts the Crusades because they were fighting under the sign of the cross to save the holy lands of the Bible from being desecrated by non-Christians. However, the true reason for fighting for these lands was less than holy. It was mainly a desire for economic gain that prompted the Christian leaders to send soldiers to fight in the Holy Land.
It is amazing how many languages one hears while visiting a big city. Your hearing is not only overwhelmed by the constant surrounding noise, the strain to hear and understand when someone is giving you directions, but it also picks up the many different languages and dialects spoken around you. Language not only highlights and defines a geographic area but also the culture of that particular area. You are seeing so many new places, faces, and your hearing is in the same situation. You immerse yourself in the culture by eating the food, buying the traditional souvenirs, sightseeing and participating in local activities. You wish you understood the language and try to listen to the dialogue exchanged between the people who live there. For once English is not the dominant language. You are now considered the immigrant; what do you do?
Call It Sleep by Henry Roth is both a multilingual and multicultural novel about the son of an immigrant family. It is a multilingual novel through the narrative strategies Roth uses for the American reader who does not understand any language but English. Multilingualism is used throughout this novel to encompass communicative skills in more than one language, even if it is active or passive (McWhorter 36). John McWhorter states, “when two or more languages are rolled around in the same mouths, they merge. Linguists have found there is no such thing as languages coexisting without affecting one another” (36-37). Roth wrote Call It Sleep from the inside perspective of David Schearl’s psyche and his personal journey for a personal and cultural identity. The entire novel is written in third person but through David’s eyes; therefore, David does not reveal anything he is not comfortable revealing. Roth wrote the novel in an early twentieth-century inner-city. The inner-city, like the Lower East Side of New York City, became something to suppress immigrant’s roots and origins (Giles 11). David lives with his mother and father in Brownsville, Brooklyn, and later on New York’s East Side. David is the protagonist and speaks two languages throughout the multicultural and multilingual novel.
A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove. A good thesis statement makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts. The thesis statement is typically located at the end of your opening paragraph. Remember, your reader will be looking for your thesis. Make it clear, strong, and easy to find. What is a thesis?
clearly identifies the subject of the paper; makes an assertion about that subject, one that allows for a range of discussion; predicts the logical order you will follow in your discussion. Assertion: support, reason, examples Simple equations for a thesis
Despite never playing sports, young John Doe achieved unusual physical fitness on his Montana cattle ranch. Subject--John Doe and his physical fitness Assertion--fitness was "unusual" Order--sports history of the time, your definition of "unusual" fitness, the way in which John Doe achieved fitness Thesis examples
It should be contestable, proposing an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree. A strong thesis is provocative; it takes a stand and justifies the discussion you will present. It is specific and focused. A strong thesis proves a point without discussing “everything about …” Instead of music, think "American jazz in the 1930s" and your argument about it. It clearly asserts your own conclusion based on evidence. It is perfectly okay to change your thesis! It provides the reader with a map to guide him/her through your work. It avoids vague language (like "it seems"). It avoids the first person. ("I believe," "In my opinion") Attributes of a good thesis
A specific subject + a particular stand, feeling, or feature Writing a thesis statement… = an effective thesis statement
Meets the requirements of assignment Thesis Checklist • Identifies a limited, specific subject • Focuses on a particular feature or feeling about a subject • Supported with convincing facts and details • Stated in a clear, direct sentence
Writing assignment: Research paper about social issue Subject: Homeless people Thesis statement: Who are the homeless (SUBJECT) and what are the reasons for their predicament?(FEATURE) Writing assignment: Research paper about human growth and development Subject: Personality traits Thesis statement: Certain personality traits(SUBJECT) are shaped primarily by the person’s peer group. (POSITION) Sample thesis: