WHAT IS OSHA? • OSHA is the acronym used for the: Occupational Safety and Health Administration • A branch of the Department of Labor. • The Federal Government agency that regulates health & safety at the workplace.
How did OSHA come about? • Voted into law from the OSHA Act of 1970. • Because of serious concerns for workers exposure to blood and certain other body fluids the contain bloodborne pathogens. In recognition of these potential hazards, the bloodborne pathogen standard 29CFR 1910.1030 was implemented to minimize workplace hazardous conditions.
What areBloodborne Pathogens? • Bloodborne Pathogens are disease-causing microorganisms such as the virus and bacteria that are presented in human blood and certain other body fluids, and can transmit to other humans. • Many people carry bloodborne pathogens without any visible symptoms • Many people carry bloodborne pathogens without even knowing it.
Which two Bloodborne Pathogens most concern OSHA ? • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) • HBV (Hepatitis B Virus)
What is HIV and why is it dangerous? • HIV is the virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • HIV currently has no preventative vaccination or cure. There are medications to help individuals with HIV live longer healthier lives. However, these infected individuals still have the virus in their system. If an individual with HIV infection has a T-Cell count lower than 200 and an opportunistic infection then they are considered to have AIDS.
What is HBV and why is it dangerous? • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV is a form of viral hepatitis. The incubation period of hepatitis B ranges from 45 to 160 days. • On average just below .4 percent of health care workers are exposed annually. • Individuals infected with hepatitis B are 12 to 300 times more likely to contract cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. There is no cure for HBV, however there is a vaccine for prevention. Workers who have direct exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials on the job run a risk of contracting bloodborne infections from HBV, HIV which causes AIDS, and other pathogens
What is the most common way of contracting HIV and HBV? • Unprotected Sex with an infected partner. • IV drug user sharing potentially infected needles. • Accidental cuts/needle sticks with an infected sharp. • Mothers passing the virus on to newborns during birthing process or shortly after by breast feeding.
What is “Regulated Waste”? • Regulated Waste is defined as any item which leaks blood or flakes dried blood. This waste must be disposed of in biohazardous containers or bags.
What is NOTRegulated Waste? • Chux, Urine soaked diapers, diapers with feces, used disposable gloves, anything that does not contain visible blood, or that does not drip blood or flake dried blood.
How could exposure occur at the workplace? • Exposure could occur during first aid emergencies when there are blood and/body fluids present, or when cleaning up after first aid emergencies when there are blood and/body fluids present.
What is an“Exposure Control Plan”? • An Exposure Control Plan is the agency’s method of compliance with the OSHA standards. It is a collection of information on how HHCS is complying with OSHA standards. This information includes how to select PPE, The HBV Immunization Process, and other information relevant to the Bloodborne Pathogen Standards.
What are the 3 main elements of protection against exposure? • Attitude • Personal Protective Equipment • Housekeeping
Why is Attitude important in helping to prevent exposure? • By adopting a safety conscious frame of mind and using the personal protective equipment provided, staff can greatly reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Wearing gloves, gowns, face shields, etc. when required will reduce risks.
How can PPE be important in helping to prevent exposure? • PPE such as disposable gloves create a barrier between skin and PIM’s. (Potential Infections Materials)
How can housekeeping help prevent exposure? • Cleaning potentially infectious materials upon discovery with a solution of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water less than 24 hours and allowing the solution to stand for at least 20 minutes old and wiping with paper towels will eliminate the risk of spreading infections.
How can Personal Hygiene help reduce the risk of infection? • Wash any area of the body that become exposed to Potential Infections Materials (PIM’s) immediately with antibacterial soap under running water. Virus and bacteria require a route of entry, an opening in the skin. If there are no openings in the skin then immediately wash the exposed area.
What is an “exposure incident”? • An exposure incident is a specific eye, nose, mouth or broken skin contact with potentially infectious materials.
What is PPE? PPE stands for Personal Protective Equipment, e.g.., latex disposable gloves, disposable gowns, face shield, etc.
What items of PPE can help prevent exposure? • This is a really tricky question. What is needed will greatly depend upon the abilities of those consumers you work with. Some will require that staff wear no more than latex disposable gloves from time to time, other require more protective equipment to be worn. • Personal Protective Equipment can be considered as: Gloves, Gowns, Breathing barriers, Goggles, Head caps.
What is meant by the term “UniversalPrecautions”? • In a very simple term it means…. Everyone’s blood and body fluids are considered to be infected with bloodborne pathogens, regardless of status. Universal Precautions is a part of “Attitude”
What are OPIM’s (Other Potentially Infectious Materials)? • These are body fluids other than blood that can carry HIV or HBV., semen, vaginal secretion, amniotic fluids, cerebrospinal fluids, plureal fluids • NOT Sweat • NOT Tears • NOT Salvia (unless blood is present) • NOT Feces (unless blood is present)
How are OPIM’s disinfected? • An OSHA approved mixture of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water is used to disinfect. This mixture must be less than 24 hours old in order to maintain its potency.
Should PPE be worn all the time at the workplace? Personal Protective Equipment should be used when: • Assisting someone with menstrual care. • Assisting someone with toileting • Assisting someone with oral hygiene. • Assisting someone with shaving • Providing First Aid • Handling dirty laundry
How can hands be disinfected when there is not a sink available? • By using antibacterial waterless hand cleaner, hands can be disinfected until a sink becomes available.
Where are Potentially Infected Materials Discarded? If an item has visible blood it is to be discarded in a red bags or containers with the biohazard symbol. The red bag will be placed into a box marked for biohazardouos waste, sealed and labeled with the date and address, and the address where the box was sealed.
Location of OSHA Spill Kit • During OSHA training staff are made aware of the location of the OSHA spill kits and First aid Kits • Both are in the dining area along with the CPR mask.