Class Presentation: CEDA 500-01-1 Dr. Noran Moffett Group Three /EAST DESIREE GLOVER - AVIS TURNER THE STYLE APPROACH CHAPTER FOUR
Overview: The Style Approach • Description • The Ohio State Studies • The University of Michigan Studies • Blake/Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid • Five Major Leadership Styles • Style Approach Demonstrated
Overview: The Style Approach • Comparative Analysis: Strengths/Criticisms • Case Studies • Application of Standards • Summary • References
The Style Approach : Description • Emphasized the behavior of the leader. • Expanded the study of leadership with more of a focus on what leaders did and how they acted. • Composed of two types of behaviors.
The Style Approach: Description • Task behaviors – focused on goal attainment. • Relationship behaviors – helped employees feel comfortable with themselves, each other and their work assignments/situation.
Research Studies: Ohio State • Developed due to the disparaging views of Trait theory among researchers. • Analyzed how leaders behaved when they lead organizations. • Researchers formulated and administered a survey questionnaire in which employees identified the number of times their leaders engaged in particular behaviors.
Research Studies: Ohio State cont’d • The original survey questionnaire was comprised of 1800 items that described leader behaviors within the organization they lead. • Items from the original survey were used to develop a 150 question survey called the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). • The LBDQ was administered to employees in the military, education and manufacturing industries.
Research Studies: Ohio State cont’d • The results of the LBDQ were instrumental in predicting clusters of leadership behaviors across industries. • Later in 1963, R. M. Stogdill published a shorter version of the LPDQ, later known as the LPDQ-XII. • Results from the LPDQ-XII indicated two types of leadership behaviors displayed in organizations that represented the core of style leadership.
Research Studies: Ohio State cont’d • Initiating structure behaviors: organization of work, provision of structure to the work context, definition of role responsibilities and development of work schedules. • Consideration behaviors: building camaraderie, respect, trust, developing positive relationships between the leader and worker.
Research Studies: Ohio State cont’d • The Ohio State Studies viewed two behaviors as distinct and independent. • The behaviors identified by the Ohio State Studies are still considered to be highly representative of the style approach.
Research Studies: UMichigan • Focused mainly on how the behaviorsof leaders impacted the performance of their employees and small groups. • Identified two types of leadership behaviors: • Employee orientation • Production orientation
Research Studies: UMichigan • Employee orientation consists of leadership behaviors that indicate concern for the employee from a human relations perspective. • Take interest in the employee. • Value employee individuality. • Respond favorably to the needs of an employee. • Similar to the “Consideration” cluster behaviors identified by Ohio State researchers.
Research Studies: UMichigan • Production orientation consists of leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspects of the job. • Workers are viewedas a means of getting work accomplished. • Similar to the “Initiating” cluster behaviors identified in the Ohio State Studies.
Research Studies: UMichigan • Employee and Production orientations were regarded as polar opposites in terms of ideological differences. • Leaders oriented toward production were less oriented toward their employees. • Leaders oriented toward employees were less oriented toward production.
R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid • Developed initially in 1964, as a model for organizational development training. • The Managerial Grid, later named the Leadership Grid, was designed to explain how leaders help organizations reach their goals.
R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid • Leadership Grid Demonstrated – Group Activity #1 – Tarp Exercise • Note: Please gather around the Tarp in front of the class. • Reflection/Discussion of activity.
R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid • Leadership Grid Demonstrated – Group Activity #2 – Where Do You Stand? • Note: Please gather around the Leadership Grid in front of the class. • Reflection/Discussion of activity.
Five Major Leadership Styles • Authority-Compliance Management (9,1). • Country Club Management (1,9). • Impoverished Management (1,1). • Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5). • Team Management (9,9). • Two additional styles • Paternalism/Maternalism. • Opportunism.
Comparative Analysis Strengths Criticisms Research has not shown how leadership styles are associated to performance outcomes. The style approach has been unable to identify the universal behaviors of effective leadership. It implies that most effective leadership style is the high-high style. • Leadership research is broadened to include the behaviors of leaders and Identify what they do in various situations. • A wide range of studies on leadership style give the style approach credibility. • The core of the leadership process are the 2 major types of behaviors-task and relationship. • Learns can self-reflect by trying to see their own behaviors from a task/relationship perspective.
LBDQ-XII Style Questionnaire • Class Activity – Please complete the Style Questionnaire and tabulate your score. • Reflection/Discussion of activity – Please be prepared to discuss your individual score with the class.
Case Study 4.1 • Case 4.1 – Drill Sergeant at First-Group 1, • Upon reading this case, pleas discuss the following questions: • How would you describe his leadership style? • How did his style change over time? • What score do you think he would get on the Blake and Mouton grid? • In general, was he more task oriented or more relationship oriented?
Case Study 4.2 • Eating Lunch Standing Up-Group 2/Dr. Moffet), • Upon reading this case, please discuss the following questions: • How would you describe Ms. Parks' leadership style according to the style approach? • Why does her leadership style create such a definitive reaction for her staff? • Do you think Ms. Parks should change her style? • Would she be effective if she changed?
Case Study 4.3 • Enhancing the Dept’s Culture-Group 4, • Upon reading this case study please discuss the following questions: • What style is it? • Does it sound as if it is effective in the context of a design department at a furniture company? • Would you or would you not like to work for Mr. Ludwig? • Is there a downside to this style of leadership?
Application of Standards Standard 2.0: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective instructional program, applying best practice to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plan for staff. Standard 5.0: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairly, and in an ethical manner.
Summary: The Style Approach • The style approach was different from the trait and skills approach to leadership. • Focused on what leaders did rather than who leaders were. • Suggests two primary types of leadership behaviors. • Tasks behaviors. • Relationship behaviors. • Focus remains on how leaders combine the two types of behaviors to influence others.
Summary: Research Studies • Originated from three different lines of research: • The Ohio State Studies - • Developed the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). • Identified initiation of structure as the core leadership behaviors. • The University of Michigan Studies – • Drew from the previous work done at Ohio State and attempted to better understand the best way for leaders to combine task and relationship behaviors. • Attempted to explain leadership effectiveness in every situation.
Summary: Leadership Grid/Styles of Leadership • R. R. Blake and J.S. Mouton Leadership Grid. • Developed a practical model for training managers that described leadership behaviors along a grid with two axes: • Concern for results. • Concern for people. • Five Leadership Styles: • Authority-Compliance (9,1). • County Club Management (1,9). • Impoverished Management (1,1). • Middle-of-the-road Management (5,5). • Team Management (9,9).
Summary: Strengths • The style approach offered researchers an opportunity to broaden inquiry into the study of leadership to include key leader behaviors. • Considered a wide range of studies and was deemed reliable amongst researchers. • Identified Task and Relationship behaviors as core leadership behaviors. • Provided an opportunity for self-assessment of our individual leadership styles.
Summary: Criticisms • Task and Relationship behaviors cannot be associated with outcomes such as: • Morale • Job satisfaction • Productivity • The style approach does not identify a universal set of leadership behaviors.
References • Lunenburg, F. C. & Ornstein, A.C., (2008). Educational Administration: Concepts & practices, Fifth Edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning (CF: Knowledge, Skills and Dispositions cited in Conceptual Framework and ELLC Standards 1-6). • Northouse, P. G. (2007), Leadership Theory and Practice, Fourth Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. • Shafritz, J.M., & Ott, J. S., Classics of Organization Theory, Fifth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Group/Thomson Learning. • http://www.gridinternational.com/pdf/AboutGII.pdf. • http://www.stewart-associates.co.uk/leadership-models.aspx.