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Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

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Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

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  1. Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly

  2. What are adjectives? • Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns • These words are all adjectives • A hot day • A happy camper • A silly goose • A big, disgusting mess (both “big” and “disgusting” modify “mess”) • She is creative (“creative” is a subject complement that follows the linking verb “is”) • A boring course (present participle used as an adjective

  3. So what are adverbs? • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs • Many adverbs end with ly • Many adverbs answer the question “How?” • These are adverbs: • Eating quickly (modifying a verb) • Trying very hard (modifying an adverb) • A really big show (modifying an adjective)

  4. Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs • Many words have both an adjective and adverb form

  5. Comparatives and Superlatives • Most adverbs and adjectives also have a comparative and superlative form • Use the comparative form to compare two things • Sally is the larger of the twins (not largest) • Use the superlative form to compare three or more • August was the hottest month of the year

  6. Double Comparatives • Don’t use “more” or “most” with –er or –est • Yesterday was more hotter than today • That was the most dirtiest story I ever heard • You are the bestest teacher

  7. Absolute Concepts • Don’t use comparatives or superlatives with absolute concepts • Absolutes have only two possibilities, on or off, yes or no, with nothing in between • The most perfect student in the class • A very unique idea (say “very unusual” instead) • These words express absolute concepts that cannot be modified

  8. Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed • You did a real nice job • (an adjective can’t modify another adjective) • You did a really nice job • (the adverb “really” modifies “nice”) • He did good • He did well or • He did a good job • Fuel injection helps the car run efficient • Fuel injection helps the car run efficiently • Come quick! • Come quickly! • Hopefully, it won’t rain • (an adverb explains how something will happen • Ihope that it won’t rain

  9. Don’t use needless adverbs • Before using any of these words, check to see if they add anything to the sentence • Really, very, absolutely, extremely, quite, actually, somewhat, rather • I am really happy to see you • Grammar is very boring • You are absolutely correct • Her language was extremely crude • You are quite intelligent • Context will help you decide whether to retain the underlined words • Keep them only if they add to the meaning • Bill Gates is very rich. I hope he gives me some money. • Most college instructors are poor; their students are very poor. • Note: the terms “good success” and “real good success” have been reserved for sports broadcasters; do not use them

  10. Compound Adjectives • Two or more adjectives often appear together separated with commas • Brad’s messy, torn papers were scattered all over the floor. • The words “messy” and “torn” each work separately to modify “papers” • Connect the words with a hyphen when they function together before a noun • Jack’s gold-plated piercings stood out against his bright-red sunburn • “Gold-plated” and “bright-red” are compound adjectives

  11. Terry was well known along the boardwalk (no hyphen) His SUV was fully equipped Brad worked full time on his tan Terry was a well-known jerk (hyphenated) He drove a fully-equipped SUV Brad was a full-time chick magnet Compound Adjectives • Do not hyphenate the words when they come after the noun they modify • Notice the difference in these examples

  12. Misplaced Modifiers • Put adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify • Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement • An old pile of clothes is on the floor • A pile of old clothes is on the floor • I almost believe you are finished • I believe you are almost finished • The winners will only be contacted • Only the winners will be contacted • I can’t quite do this as well as Fred • I can’t do this quite as well as Fred

  13. Tell: How? When? Where? To what extent? (How much?) • patiently loudly carefully sometimes daily always now • inside there everywhere extremely nearly almost so • really too so usually especially very today upstairs • close soon well much little better more less best • most least twice together quite badly not

  14. Adverbs answer:How? When? Where? To what extent?