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Postgraduate Research

Postgraduate Research

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Postgraduate Research

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  1. Postgraduate Research Professor D Howard Green Chair : UK Council for Graduate Education

  2. Structure • Change – some numbers • Awards - diversity • The Quality Agenda • Recruitment • Europe

  3. Postgraduate growth Numbers FT PT 1961/62 19,400 6,300 1994/95 128,300 187,100 1999/00 151,330 257,290 Relative position Total PG Population 1979/80 787,000 100,900 (13%) 1994/95 1,528,000 315,400 (21%)

  4. The Distribution of Doctorates Awarded by Institution (2000) Quartile Number of Institutions Upper 5 Second 9 Third 18 Lower 97 Source: Millichope, 2001

  5. Total Number of Doctorates Awarded by UK HEIs, 1996-2003

  6. RAE Grade and Student FTE RAE Grade Submissions Student FTE Mean N (%) 3b 278 (11) 996 3.6 3a 499 (19) 2,800 5.6 4 664 (26) 6,545 9.9 5 715 (28) 14,144 21.3 5* 284 (11) 8,984 31.6

  7. Students by Institution and mode 2001 Total FT PT Total Old universities 47158 44949 92107 New universities 5095 8175 13270 Colleges of Higher Education 631 1164 1795 Grand Total52884 54288 107172

  8. PG First Year UK2002/3 Source: HESA Table 1d & 1h

  9. Bristol 2003/4 Total all students 22,705 Postgrads Total F M FT PT 7850 3,870 3,975 2,695 5,150 1999/2000 Total all students 17,920 Postgrads 5360 2,610 2,750 1,820 3,540

  10. Origins 1999/2000 2003/4 FT FT Total UK 1230 1545 5445 EU ) 605 Not EU ) 590 1155 1805

  11. Doctorates Awarded 2003/4 • UK 15,255 • Cambridge 920 • Oxford 705 • UC 655 • Birmingham 570 • Imperial 515 • Manchester 515 • Leeds 465 • Nottingham 460 • Sheffield 455 • Bristol 410

  12. Diversity of Doctorates • Standard PhD ( What is that?) • Practice based doctorate • New route PhD • By thesis, by papers, by practice, • Professional doctorate

  13. Quality Agenda • Origins in Harris 1995 • QAA Code 1999 • Improving Standards (HEFCE/SHEFC) • QAA Code 2004

  14. Drivers • Value for money • 1993 White Paper – Realising our potential • Funding • Limited • Numbers • International markets • Evidence

  15. Code • Precepts • Explanation

  16. Some elements • Research Environment (P5) • ‘to do and learn about research’ • ‘located in or across one or more institutions’ • Supervisors (P11,12,13,14) • NPC: Wellcome Trust • Assessment (P22,23,24) • Training (P18/19/20) • Personal and professional development

  17. Roberts • Training budgets • UKRCs including AHRC • Review and evaluation

  18. Code • Does it establish the ground rules? • No targets • Levels of discretion?

  19. Recruitment

  20. Home domiciled PhD starters by subject area, 1997-98 and 2001-02 1997 2001 Medicine and dentistry 1,004 9% 1,275 11% 27% Subjects allied to medicine 640 5% 722 6% 13% Biological sciences 1,995 17% 1,873 16% -6% Chemistry 909 8% 789 7% -13% Physics 466 4% 475 4% 2% Other physical sciences 491 4% 458 4% -7%

  21. Money (STIPENDS ETC) • Career structures • Recruitment process

  22. Stipends: • Roberts provides a useful analysis – and the £13,000 rise • Impact on other funders and numbers • International comparisons: • US $30,000 IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research traineeship – NSF) (£17,191) • Canada $30,000 Canadian (£14,679) • Salary or stipend

  23. Stipend • Takes more than three years – so who funds final years • Long hours in labs – little time for PT work • National insurance • Maternity leave • Contribution to pensions (lost 3/80ths) for FT.

  24. Career Structures • Post docs – what do they do? • What are their rights? • Research Careers Initiative BUT: • What are they paid – Roberts recommended at least £20,000 - This at the end of 7 years plus HE • Maths/Chemistry BSc with 1st or 2.1 will start at £25,000 – 30,000 in the City

  25. Progression 2002-03 (non-permanent research assistants) Total % • Permanent 550 3% • Non permanent 14,750 69% • None 5,964 28%

  26. Progression 2002-03Permanent Contract in following year • Chemistry 1,530 2% • Physics 1,505 2% • Other physical sciences 623 4% • Mathematical sciences 631 3%

  27. Institutional funding • HEFCE Dec 2004 • Impact • On institutions • On disciplines • Regional possibilities

  28. Units of assessment (UoA) with 50% or more submissions rated below 4 10 Nursing • 11 Other Studies and PAM • 16 Food Science and Technology • 21 Environmental Sciences • 26 General Engineering • 29 Electrical and Electronic Engineering • 33 Built Environment • 43 Business and management • 61 Library and Information Management • 64 Art and Design • 65 Communication, Cultural and Media Studies • 66 Drama, Dance and Performing Arts • 68 Education • 69 Sports Related Subjects • (Units in receipt of Capability Funds are italicised)

  29. Recruitment conclusion • Is there a process? • Is it a market?

  30. Europe – anew challenge • European Higher Education Area • European Research Area • Bologna: three cycle model • 3+2+3+ • Salzburg Recommendations

  31. Advancement of knowledge through original research • Embedded in institutional policies and strategies • Diversity of programmes • As early stage researchers • Crucial role of supervision and assessment

  32. Achieving critical mass • Duration (3-4 years ‘as a rule’) • Innovative structures • Increasing mobility • Appropriate funding • For agreement by Ministers in 2007 in Bergen

  33. European Charter for Researchers and Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. (2005) • Develop and maintain a supportive research environment – esp. early stage researchers • Create transparent and equal recruitment and career development • Sort out problems inhibiting mobility • Equality of employment rights and benefits

  34. Conclusion • Lots going on • Who is influencing • Who is deciding • Need a pause to evaluate