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Chapter 7 LATE BAROQUE MUSIC BACH AND HANDEL Craig Wright’s Listening to Music , 4/edition PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 7 LATE BAROQUE MUSIC BACH AND HANDEL Craig Wright’s Listening to Music , 4/edition

Chapter 7 LATE BAROQUE MUSIC BACH AND HANDEL Craig Wright’s Listening to Music , 4/edition

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Chapter 7 LATE BAROQUE MUSIC BACH AND HANDEL Craig Wright’s Listening to Music , 4/edition

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  1. Chapter 7 LATE BAROQUE MUSIC BACH AND HANDELCraig Wright’s Listening to Music, 4/edition

  2. Timeline

  3. Late Baroque Aesthetic • Refinement rather than innovation • Old forms polished and perfected • Culmination of Baroque style • Drama through contrast • Large blocks of sound placed in opposition • Musical forms provide framework for contrast

  4. Late Baroque Musical Style • Melody • Principle of continuing development • Long, expansive, and irregular phrases • Melodic sequence • Rhythm • The most distinctive and exciting element of Baroque music • Strong, recognizable sense of meter • Harmony • Continuation of major and minor keys, basso continuo • Constant rate of harmonic change a new feature • Texture: Return of counterpoint

  5. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Rarely more than 25 players • More instruments added for festive occasions

  6. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Strings form the core of the ensemble • Violins replace viols • Multiple string players on each part

  7. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Strings form the core of the ensemble • Woodwinds • Oboes or flutes • Bassoon

  8. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Strings form the core of the ensemble • Woodwinds • Brasses • Trumpet or French horn • Both instruments usually played by one musician

  9. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Strings form the core of the ensemble • Woodwinds • Brasses • Percussion • Rarely used in Baroque music • Parts were not written out

  10. Late Baroque Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Strings form the core of the ensemble • Woodwinds • Brasses • Percussion • Basso continuo still essential

  11. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) • Career • Weimar (1708-1717), organist • Cöthen (1717-1723), court composer and conductor • Leipzig (1723-1750), cantor • Reputation • During his lifetime known more as a great organist than as a composer • Brought the cantata to the highest point of development • The greatest composer of contrapuntal music in the history of western music

  12. Organ Fugue in G Minor (ca. 1710) • Subject: the theme that serves as the fugue’s primary musical idea • Exposition: opening section of fugue during which each voice in turn presents the subject for the first time • Episode: freer sections where the subject is not heard in its entirety • Definition of fugue • A composition for three or more parts, either vocal or instrumental • Begins with each part presenting the subject one after the other • Continues with alternating passages of episodes and further appearances of the subject

  13. Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 • Completed in 1721 • Violin, flute, and harpsichord constitute the concertino • Harpsichord treated as a soloist and not relegated to the basso continuo • Considered the first concerto for a keyboard instrument • First movement in Ritornello form • Nine ritornello sections • Played by the tutti • Theme consists of two parts, A and B

  14. Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (cont) • Solo sections • Concertino instruments play motives derived from ritornello themes • Ritornello theme, part A • Solo Section 1 • · Last solo section concludes with a lengthy cadenza for the harpsichord

  15. Opera / Cantata

  16. Cantata: Awake, A Voice is Calling • First performed on November 25, 1731, the last Sunday before Advent • Text elaborates the Gospel reading: St. Matthew 25: 1-13 • Wise and foolish virgins symbolize the contrast between those who are prepared to receive the coming Christ and those who are not • The message: get your spiritual house in order • Three movements for chorus based on the tune and text of a traditional chorale • Chorale: German hymn tune • Awake, a Voice is Calling (Wachet auf)

  17. Cantata: Awake, A Voice is Calling (cont.) • First movement a chorale fantasy • Sopranos sing chorale tune in long tones • Altos, tenors, and basses sing contrapuntal lines that reflect the meaning of the text • Orchestral accompaniment • Opening ritornello introduces three motive • Orchestra plays an interlude between each phrase of the chorale tune

  18. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) • Career • Hamburg (1703-1706) • Italy (1706-1710) • Hanover (1710) • London (1710-1759) • Reputation • Most famous composer in Europe and a national institution in England • Reputation continued to increase after his death • Perhaps the finest composer for chorus who ever lived

  19. Water Music (1717) • Composed for a public entertainment • A dance suite • A collection of instrumental dances • Each movement has its own distinctive rhythm and character • All movements in binary form (A and B) • Intended as concert music, not to accompany dancing • Horn Pipe • Energetic dance derived from the country jig, a popular dance among sailors • Triple meter, with syncopations • Minuet and Trio • Minuet a moderate, triple meter dance • Second minuet is shorter and called a trio • Composition was an immediate success

  20. OPERA / CANTATA / ORATORIO

  21. Messiah • Composed during the summer of 1741 • Premiered in Dublin, Ireland, April, 1742 • Choir of 23 voices and small orchestra • Enthusiastic response • Tells the story of Christ in a general way • Divided into three parts • Prophecy and Incarnation of the Messiah • Triumph of the Gospel • Victory over Death • Mood of lyrical meditation and exaltation • Nineteen choruses

  22. “Hallelujah” Chorus • Concludes Part II of the oratorio • Text based on passages from The Revelation of St. John • Hallelujah (Rev. 19:6) • For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth (Rev. 19:6) • The kingdom of this world is become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ (Rev. 11:15) • And he shall reign for ever and ever (Rev. 11:15) • King of Kings, and Lord of Lords (Rev. 19:16) • Each phrase of the text given its own musical identity • Tradition states the George II was so moved that he rose to his feet in admiration