Outcome Based Grant WritingJune 30, 2007House of DavidPittsburgh, PA Presented by:Dr. Khalifah Ramadan 716-812-1404 firstname.lastname@example.org
Introductions Your name, organization, role Experience with Grants Other Priority for the week
Learning Objectives At the completion of the training, participants will: • Understand the relationship between program planning and grant proposal writing. • Be able to identify and construct the core elements of a grant proposal. • Know how to distinguish between problem, objectives and methods. • Be able to utilize hard and soft data to substantiate the proposal. • Be able to interpret instructions and application guidelines from funding sources. • Be able to critique proposals and give constructive feedback • Know how to utilize the internet to conduct research on funding sources, statistics and program ideas.
Grantsmanship • What is Grantsmanship? • Grantsmanship versus “grant writing” • More than proposal writing • Organizational readiness • Multiple roles of fundraisers • Organizational placement is key • Proposal writing is part of a process • Involving others
Grantsmanship & Faith-based Funding • Background • Changing landscape • Implications • Issues & challenges
Grantsmanship • Avoid chasing money
Chasing $ can lead to… MISSION
Flow of Federal Resources Dept.of HUD Department of Agriculture Federal Government Dept. of Justice Federal Emergency Management Agency Dept. of HHS Dept. of Education Dept. of Labor
Proposal Writing Pointers • Support assumptions • Present supporting facts for stated assumptions • Use clear, understandable language • Avoid Jargon • Be brief, concise, simple • Be positive • Use specifics, examples • Specifics increase impact
Proposal Writing Pointers • Balance is important • Data/facts and human interest • Words and graphics • Logic and Emotion • Use hard & soft data • Statistics • Percents +absolute numbers • Don’t overuse statistics • Clear, relevant • Quotes, examples • Put faces, voices on the work
Flow of Federal Resources Case Study SAMHSA • Stakeholders • Faith-Based Org. • Business Community • Community Based Org. • Elected Officials • CommunityPartners State/Local Gov. • Formula Allocations • Community Development Block Grant • Continuum of Care • Competitive Grants Decision-Making Table
Proposal Format Components • Summary • I. Introduction (to the applicant organization) • II. Problem Statement/Needs/Assessment • III. Objectives • IV. Methods • V. Evaluation/Outcomes • VI. Future Funding • VII. Budget Appendix
Proposal Format Components • Summary • Written last • Provides reader with necessary preparation for reading the proposal • Provides an overview of the proposal • Introduction (to the applicant) • Organizational credibility statement • Problem Statement • What is the current problem(s)? • What are the causes?
Proposal Format Components • Program Objectives • How will the problem change • Stated in terms of the beneficiaries • Methods • How will you accomplish the change you desire • Why do you think your approach will work? • Evaluation • How will you be able to tell whether or not your approach worked
Proposal Format Components • Future Funding and Other Necessary Funding • How will this effort be continued at the end of the grant funding? • Budget • Specifically, what will this effort cost?
3 Core Elements • Program • Problem • Objectives • Methods • Evaluation • Marketing - Introduction • Summary/ Appendix • Financial • Budget • Future Finding
Bathtubs vs. Buckets Problems Objectives - Outcomes
Problem Statement/ Needs Assessment Narrative description of current situation or conditions affecting people in a specific geographic area
Problem Statement/ Needs Assessment • What IS going on • “Layers” / funnel • Supported with hard and soft data • Facts • Stat’s • Quotes • Examples • People – centered • Answers SO WHAT?
Problem Statement • What is the current problem(s) • What are the causes of the problem(s) • Clearly related to the purpose of your organization • Describes current conditions that require action • Includes a discussion of the causes of the problem • Reasonable dimensions • Supported by evidence • Specific to a geographic area or population
Problem Pitfalls • Need for … • Staff • Equipment • Building, etc. • Agency – centered
Problem Pitfalls • Vague, general • Elephant of a problem with mouse of a solution
Problem: Example “Cardiovascular disease claimed more than 925,000 lives in the United States last year. In 2000, 6,155 Nebraskans died of heart disease –17 people each day. This makes heart disease the number one killer in Nebraska, accounting for 41% of all deaths. James Moller, M.D., Pediatric Cardiologist at University of Nebraska stated: “Unfortunately for our children, heart disease is thought of as an elderly person’s disease. In fact, the beginning states of heart disease occur at a very young age. Lifestyle behaviors and habits are established early and continue through adulthood.
Problem: Example Our children are increasingly at risk- nationwide: • 17% to 33% are obese • 50% engage in little or no physical activity • 4,000,000 children smoke • 3,000 children begin smoking each day. If health trends remain the same, more than half of Nebraska’s children will die of heart disease, and at earlier ages than ever before.”
Proposal Problem Statement Checklist • Relates to purpose and goals of organization • Reasonable dimensions • Supported by statistical evidence • Supported by statements from authorities • Stated in terms of clients or beneficiaries
Proposal Problem Statement Checklist • Developed with input from clients and beneficiaries • Not the “lack of a method” (unless the method is infallible) • Doesn’t make assumptions • Doesn’t use jargon • Is interesting to read
Outcomes • How will the problem change. Stated in terms of the beneficiaries. • Who will change? • What behavior will change? • In what direction will that change be? • By what time will this change take place?
Objectives • WHO • Is going to do WHAT • WHEN • How MUCH • (As MEASURED By)
Objectives • “SMART” objectives • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Time-referenced
Objectives or Outcomes?If so, good or not? • To provide a total of 20 hours of in-service training on conflict management to 35 middle school teachers during the 2001-2002 academic year. • Students will achieve at least a 10% improvement in standardized test scores by the end of 2 semesters. • To distribute educational materials to 1200 community residents concerning the Neighborhood Watch safety program. • By the end of 2002, 250 out of 300 people from Washington County that attend six HIV prevention workshops will have increased knowledge of HIV, its co-infection with Hepatitis C and the risks of transmission in substance abuse.
Objectives or Outcomes?If so, good or not? • Teens participating in the “Teen Parenting Education Program” will: • Follow proper health and nutrition guidelines • Deliver healthy babies • To increase by 550 the number of youth, ages 12 to 15, receiving sexuality education. • At the conclusion of the six-week ‘Smoking Cessation Program, “ 72% of participants will stop smoking. • 30 Injection drug users will increase their harm reduction skills in needle cleaning and correct barrier usage to reduce their risk of exposure to HIV and Hepatitis C.
Objectives or Outcomes?If so, good or not? • Students’ academic performance improves • To develop educational materials on “Making Healthy Choices” to distribute to community residents. • To increase by 50% the number of hours parents spend reading with their children. • To increase the number of women entering the fields of science and engineering.
Proposal Checklist • Describes problem-related outcomes of your program • Does not describe your methods • Defines the population served • States the time when the objectives will be met • Describes the objectives in numerical terms. If at all possible
Problems and Outcomes Problem Objectives • Layers • Hard data (Make it up if you don’t have data!) • Soft data (Quotes, case examples) • Causes and/or contributing factors • Oh! …no So What? • Short term • Longer Term • Changes in behavior, knowledge, skills, conditions • Include specific targets and timeframes • Clients (not what providers will do) No Methods!
Proposal Format Components • Summary • I. Introduction (to the applicant organization) • II. Problem Statement/Needs/Assessment • III. Program Objectives • IV. Methods • V. Evaluation • VI. Future Funding • VII. Budget Appendix
Methods • How will you accomplish the change you desire? • Why do you think your approach will work? • Components of section: • Summary of major Components • Collaboration • Staffing • Facilities and Equipment • Work plan/Timeline • Rationale
Proposal Methods Checklist • Flows naturally from problems and objectives • Clearly describes program activities • States reasons for selection of activities • Describes sequences of activities • Describes staffing of program • Describe clients and client selection • Presents a reasonable scope of activities that can be accomplished within the time allotted for program and within the resources of the applicant.
Evaluation • How will you be able to tell whether or not your approach worked? • Involve outside evaluator early in the planning process • Evaluation as a tool for marketing
Summary of Program Objectives Ends Outcomes Methods How & Why Problem/Need Conditions Evaluation Plan • What data you will collect • How you will collect it • When you will collect it • How you will use it
Evaluation Problem Objectives Methods Data Collection Methods When Evaluation Design
Data Collection Tools • Pre-post Test • Questionnaires • Instruments • Interviews • Trained Observers • Focus Groups • Physical Measurements • Logs in Client Files • Reports • Control/Comparison Groups
Proposal Evaluation Checklist • Covers outcomes and process • Tells who will be performing evaluation and how evaluators will be selected • Defines evaluation criteria • Describes data gathering methods
Proposal Evaluation Checklist • Explain any test instruments or questionnaires to be used • Describes the process of data analysis • Shows how evaluation will be used for program improvements • Describes evaluation reports to be produced
3 Core Elements • Program • Problem • Objectives • Methods • Evaluation • Marketing = Introduction • Summary/ Appendix • Financial • Budget • Future funding