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Martin John John Luther Calvin Knox

Martin John John Luther Calvin Knox

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Martin John John Luther Calvin Knox

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  1. The Reformation Martin John John Luther Calvin Knox Henry VIII Mary Tudor Elizabeth I

  2. SOL 9.4 • The student will analyze the historical developments • of the Reformation, including: • the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged during the Reformation, including the views and actions of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII and the divorce issue; • the influence of religious conflicts on government actions, including the Edict of Nantes in France; & • the evolution of laws that reflect religious beliefs, cultural values traditions, and philosophies, including the beginnings of religious toleration & the spread of democracy.

  3. Essential Questions 1) Who was Jan Hus? What happened to him? 2) What was the connection between St. Peters in Rome & the selling of indulgences? 3) What were the problems & issues that provoked (brought about) religious reforms in Christianity? 4) Why did Martin Luther (ML), Calvin, and Henry VIII break with the Catholic Church? (Not the same reason!!!) 5) What was the Inquisition? 6) What was a heretic? 7) What was the ‘counter-reformation? Was it a reaction to the reforms of the Protestant reformation? Did it succeed?

  4. Essential Questions 8) What was the Council of Trent & its effect? Why did many Popes resist these councils? 10) What was the Peace of Augsburg? 11) Calvinists believed in pre-destination. What does this mean? 12) What religion was formed by John Knox? 13) List three religions whose roots can be traced back to the Anabaptists? 14) Who was the Holy Roman Emperor at the time of Henry VIII? What was his religion? Why was he particularly against the divorce of Henry VIII to his first wife? 15) Who was the ‘Defender of the Faith’? Why was this King given this title?

  5. Essential Questions 16) Who was ‘Bloody Mary’? Why was she called by that name? 17) Why was Elizabeth I briefly imprisoned in her youth? What was her religion? 18) Prediction: Do you think that the Reformation, & the Counter-Reformation end religious conflicts --- once & for all? (What about today?) 19) What about Islam --- Was Islam still a force in Europe? 20) Elizabeth I was even more famous for her achievements during the so-called Age of Discovery. Do you know anything about England’s explorations or about a man named Sir Francis Drake?

  6. Refor- mation 1517 1529 Luther posts 95 Theses Term ‘Protestant’ is first used 1533 Terms to define: Annul  Reformation  Predestination,  Indulgences  95 Thesis  sacraments Recant Peace of Augsberg Predestination Theocracy  Act of Supremacy (1534),  Heretic Defender of the faith  Counter-reformation Huguenots  Council of Trent  Inquisition Henry VIII is proclaimed head of the Church of England. 1541 Calvin establishes Presbyterianism 1559 People or Groups to meet: Hus Erasmus Wycliffe Zwingli Martin Luther Calvin HRE Charles V KnoxAnabaptists Cardinal WolseyThomas More Henry VIII & his wives Thomas Cromwell Mary Tudor Elizabeth I Knox founds Church of Scotland 1545 + 20 years Council of Trent

  7. Abuses in the Church Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs. Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. During the Renaissance, Popes, like other Renaissance rulers, maintained a lavish lifestyle. When Leo X, a son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was elected Pope, he is said to have exclaimed, “God has given us the papacy--let us enjoy it.” Like wealthy merchants, popes, too, were patrons of the arts. For example, Michelangelo was employed to paint the ceilings of St. Peters Cathedral.

  8. WYCLIFFE, John (1330-1384). The "morning star of the Reformation" was John Wycliffe, English priest & reformer of the late Middle Ages. His teachings had a great effect on Jan Hus and, through Hus, on Martin Luther. Wycliffe opposed the pope's claim to the right to tax and to appoint men to church offices without asking the king. In 1377 he was brought to trial before the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, but a crowd of his London supporters came to his rescue. The pope issued papal decrees against him, and his teachings were condemned at Oxford. He continued to preach fearlessly, however, and he wrote many Latin treatises to support his attacks on the beliefs and practices of the church. To help those who could read to understand the Bible, Wycliffe's followers made the first full English translation. Wycliffe had the support of the nobles as long as he denounced rich churchmen, but he began to teach that lordship and property were held only by God's grace and were forfeited if the owners fell into mortal sin. In 1384 Wycliffe died in his parish of Lutterworth.

  9. Jan Hus (1369-1415). A forerunner of the Reformation, Jan Hus of Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) was burned at the stake as a heretic rather than recant his religious views and his criticisms of the clergy. Hus founded the Moravian church. As a young priest Hus was drawn to the writings of the English priest and reformer John Wycliffe, who denounced evil practices that had grown up among the clergy. Hus carried on Wycliffe's protests, and as a result he gained many enemies. Hus disagreed with some of Wycliffe's beliefs. When he opposed the burning of Wycliffe's books, he was charged with heresy and was forbidden to preach or to teach.

  10. This was the time of the Great Schism in the church (1378-1417), caused by rival claims to the papacy. One of the Popes proclaimed a crusade and promised indulgences to volunteers. Hus attacked this procedure. His followers burned the pope's decree. The church excommunicated Hus, laying an interdict on any place that sheltered him. Friends defied the interdict and hid Hus in the countryside. During this period Hus spent his time writing. In 1415 the Council of Constance met to heal the Great Schism and to discuss reform. Called by the council, Hus was given safe-conduct by the German king Sigismund. While Hus was at Constance, Sigismund repudiated his pledge. Arrested & thrown into prison, Hus was called before the council & accused of beliefs that he had never held. He refused to take back things he had not said & was put to death in 1415.

  11. ERASMUS (1466-1536). He was the leading scholar of the northern Renaissance. While the Renaissance in Italy was chiefly concerned with the revival of the ancient Greek and Roman classics, that of northern Europe was centered on reforming and revitalizing Christianity by going back to its sources in the New Testament and the church fathers. Erasmus was born on Oct. 27, 1466, in either Rotterdam or Gouda in the Netherlands. He had a mainly religious education and became a priest in the Augustinian order. But, he found no satisfaction in his duties. He won a release in 1494, and from that time he was a traveling scholar. His greatest influence resulted from his writings and other scholarly efforts. He wrote on theology, religious issues, education, and philosophy. He published editions of the works of the church fathers, including Augustine of Hippo.

  12. ERASMUS (Continued) His publication of the Greek New Testament was a landmark achievement for its time, enabling scholars to examine a more accurate text than had been available for centuries. Among his own books the most popular and enduring are 'Enchiridion', on Christianity, published in 1503, and 'The Praise of Folly'(1509), his best-known book. In one respect Erasmus differed from the spirit of his time. He wanted a reformed Christianity, but he was opposed to a divided church. Thus he opposed the Reformation, though he praised many of its goals.

  13. Martin Luther Martin Luther was born in 1483 -- a miner’s son. He started to study law, but gave it up to become first a monk, then a priest, and in 1508, a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, in Saxony. He worked hard to win his salvation. Then, one day, in 1515, he was reading St. Paul’s Epistle to the Roman and came upon a verse that says: “The just shall live by faith.” This simple phrase struck Luther with the force of revelation. Here was his answer: God asked of men only faith in Him --total, unquestioning faith. God did the rest. Faith freed men of sin.

  14. Martin Luther All efforts to wipe out the penalties of sin by penance and good works were in vain, and indeed misleading, since men might think that their accounts with God were square when in fact they had failed in the great essential; to have faith and commit all else to God. The radical consequences of his position became clear to Luther only by degrees. He did not seek out to split the Catholic Church in two. On the contrary, he always clung to the idea that somehow God would unite all Christians.

  15. What triggered the Lutheran Reformation? To raise money in Germany for the building of St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome, the Pope collected money by selling indulgences. These were pieces of paper that canceled the penalties of sin. The idea was that the Pope could arrange the transfer of merits, accumulated by Christ and the saints, to the soul in need of help.

  16. What triggered the Lutheran Reformation? (Continued) By buying such indulgences, pious persons believed they could relieve themselves or others from having to suffer for their sins in purgatory. The sale of indulgences had become an important source of income for the popes. Luther was appalled by such an approach to sin & salvation. In 1517, therefore, when a seller of indulgences came to nearby town, Luther publicly challenged the usefulness of indulgences.

  17. Martin Luther protested against the selling of indulgences in the customary way of the times --- He posted a series of 95 thesis (grievances) on the door of All Saints Church, in Wittenberg. These thesis were short statements of points which Luther was prepared to defend in public debate with anyone who chose to argue against him. Luther’s views were soon deemed as heresy. If men needed only faith for salvation, then the sacraments of the Church were unnecessary. Moreover, if faith alone saved men’s soul, what happened to the power of priests to channel God’s saving grace to sinful men through the rites of the Church? Luther admitted that on these points, he agreed with Jan Huss, the Czech heretic, who had been burned at the stake, in 1415. Luther would not recant - and felt, instead, that the Pope must be wrong!!

  18. Luther put the whole issue before the German public, in 1520, by writing three pamphlets which outlined his position. What was the effect of Guttenberg’s printing press on the spread of the Reformation?

  19. Luther invited the German nobility to reform the Church along the lines laid down in the Bible itself. Appeal to the Bible as the only reliable source of religious truth was, in fact Luther’s strongest and most convincing argument. The public response in Germany to Luther’s words was tremendous. His arguments seemed convincing to most Germans. Nearly everyone agreed that the Catholic Church needed reform---and furthermore, no one in Germany really liked to see good German money being shipped off to Rome to build the new cathedral.

  20. Charles V, summons Luther to an assembly The newly elected Holy Roman Emperor(HRE), Charles V made the Lutheran question one of the important items of business to be taken up at his first imperial diet (legislature), which met at Worms, in 1521. Luther went, expecting to defend his writings. Instead, the emperor simply ordered him to stop.ML refused! Charles V declared ML an outlaw, making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give him food or shelter. That same year, the Pope excommunicated Luther. But, Prince Frederick, the Elector of Saxony, hid him, anyway, in a castle for nearly a year. During this time, throughout Germany, ML was hailed as a hero. Many began to renounce the authority of the Pope. Luther used this time to translate the New Testament into German. Next, he translated the Old Testament.

  21. Who was Charles V (1500-1558) ? He was the grandson of Ferdinand of Castile & Isabella I & heir to Burgundy(in France) & Spain. He, then, acquired Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia through succession. He bribed the electors of the Holy Roman Empire to name him emperor, crowning him Charles V and giving him rule over more countries than any other European monarch.Under his rule, the Hapsburgs became the most powerful European family, ruling Spain, Austria, Germany, much of Italy, & the ‘Low Countries’ (or present day Belgium, Luxembourg, & the Netherlands.). No European ruler since Charlemagne had presided over such an empire.At the same time, Charles V’s enemies were as numerous as his subjects and his lands lacked any real cohesion. Spaniards, Dutchmen, Austrians, & Germans had little in common except the same ruler. (see map).

  22. Peasant Revolt In 1524, a peasants’ revolt erupted across Germany. The rebels demanded an end to serfdom. As the revolt grew more violent, Luther denounced it. He did not see himself as a social reformer.In fact, he urged nobles to suppress the rebellion. They did... killing between 70,000 and 100,000 people and leaving 50,000 homeless. By 1530, the Lutherans were using the name Protestants, for those who ‘protested’ the pope’s authority.

  23. Luther & his followers set out to order the Church according to the Bible After Luther denounced the peasant revolt, the Lutheran reform movement lost much of its ‘white-hot’ enthusiasm which Luther’s words had stimulated during the first eight years. Instead, Luther & his followers set out to order the Church as it should be ordered--that is, according to the Bible---in every land where the secular ruler would agree to undertake the task of reform. Many, but not all German princes went along with Luther in this task. They had much to gain, for the Lutherans decided that Church property was unnecessary, that monasteries should be suppressed, and that Church appointments should be handled like appointments to other public offices. (Posts of administrative responsibility in the Church should be treated as another, though supremely important, branch of the governmental bureaucracy.)

  24. After Martin Luther’s Death When Martin Luther died in 1546, reform along these lines had been firmly established in most of northern Germany and in Scandinavia. Charles V had been too busy in Italy and elsewhere to check Lutheranism effectively. When he did find time to turn to internal German affairs, it was too late. Confiscated lands and abandoned monasteries could not be restored; in such matters the German princes would not submit to the emperor’s will without a fight. Charles V tries to use force, but soon failed. In 1555, he therefore reluctantly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg (also referred to as the Augsberg Confession), which gave every German ruler the right to impose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism upon his subjects.The south remained mostly Catholic.

  25. Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531) Luther’s challenge to the Pope did not pass unnoticed outside Germany. Especially among townspeople in France, Switzerland, England, & the Low Countries. In many places, however, the reform party was unable to gain control of the government. Without such power they could only form a church, according to their taste, by withdrawing into some sort of separate body of their own. But, in Switzerland, local districts and cities ruled themselves. Therefore religious reformers had only to convince a majority of the city council in order to begin reform. In this fashion, a fiery preacher, Huldreich Zwingli started reform in Zurich, Switzerland -- in 1518.

  26. Calvin (John 1509-1564) Huldreich Zwingli’s ideas paralleled those of Luther on many points. Church reform spread to other Swiss towns, but in the mountains, more conservative communities clung to Catholicism. Civil war broke out, & Zwingli was killed in battle. Soon, thereafter, a peace was concluded that left each district free to choose its own form of religion. In 1541, a Frenchmen named John Calvin (1509-1564), took up residence in Geneva. Calvin was far more cool-headed than Martin Luther.

  27. John Calvin (continued) John Calvin was a major leader in the 16th century Reformation of the Catholic Church. He established a new religion with strict codes of belief and behavior. Calvin taught the virtues of faith above good works & advanced the theory of universal priesthood, in which all Christians could practice their religion without the daily guidance of priests. Calvin also established the idea of the ‘Elect.’ This is called predestination. This is a belief that a pre-ordained group of people have been ‘pre-chosen’ by God for salvation. Many European princes and citizens embraced Calvinism, & his ideas spread to other countries & sparked other major Protestant religions.

  28. John Calvin & the Reformation • Calvin’s Geneva In 1541, Protestants in the city-state of Geneva, in Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their community. In keeping with his teachings, Calvin set up a theocracy,or government run by church leaders. Calvin’s followers in Geneva came to see themselves as the new ‘chosen people’. Calvinists stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty, and morality. Citizens faced fines or even harsher punishment for offenses such as fighting, swearing, laughing in church, and dancing. By the late 1500s, Calvinism had spread to Germany, France, the Netherland, England, & Scotland. This was clearly a challenge to the Catholic Church. In Germany, the Calvinists faced opposition from Lutherans as well as from Catholics. In the late 1500s, in France, wars raged between French Calvinists (calledHuguenots), and Catholics.

  29. John Knox of Scotland In Scotland, a Calvinist preacher named John Knox led a religious rebellion. He declared that, “right religion takes neither [its origin] nor authority from worldly princes, but from the eternal God alone.” Under Knox, Scottish Protestants overthrew their Catholic queen. They set up the Scottish Presbyterian Church.

  30. The Anabaptists: As the Reformation continued, hundreds of new Protestant sects sprang up. These sects often had ideas that were even more radical than those of Martin Luther & Calvin. For example, a number of groups rejected infant baptism. Infants , it was argued, were too young to understand what it meant to accept the Christian faith. Only adults should receive baptism.These critics were known as Anabaptists. Some Anabaptists were radical social reformers, as well. When a group of Anabaptists took over the city of Munster, in Germany, Luther advised his supporters to join Catholics in suppressing the threat to the traditional order. But…most Anabaptists were peaceful. Today, Protestant denominations such as Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites, and Amish all trace their roots to the Anabaptists.

  31. WOLSEY, Cardinal (1475-1530). During the early years of Henry VIII's reign, Cardinal Wolsey shaped England's policy abroad and was the leading figure in both church and state at home. When Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509, he continued to favor Wolsey as his father had done before him. Soon all authority was concentrated in his hands. England was too narrow a field for his vast ambition. He threw England's influence on the side of the Holy Roman emperor, Charles V, in the latter's rivalry with Francis I of France. He expected thereby to enlist the emperor's aid for his own aspirations to become Pope.He initiated the policy of destroying the monasteries, which was to be carried through to completion by Henry VIII. Wolsey's greed, arrogance, and insatiable lust for power outweighed his many great qualities. His policies and haughtiness alienated both clergy and laymen.

  32. Wolsey’s Hampton Court Palace England's influence in Europe declined instead of increased. Charles V found it prudent to see that Wolsey should not become Pope. Wolsey had reluctantly made himself responsible for the success of Henry VIII's appeal to Rome for an annulment of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. When the pope refused, the king's wrath knew no bounds. Wolsey was swept from his high place. He had already given his Hampton Court Palace to the King; now he requested the king to take over all his possessions, and he retired. Summoned to London to answer a charge of treason, Wolsey died on the way, on Nov. 29, 1530, in Leicester.

  33. CROMWELL, Thomas (1485-1540). Virtually the ruler of England from 1532 to 1540, Thomas Cromwell served as principal adviser to Henry VIII during those years. Cromwell established the English Reformation, seized the wealth of the monasteries for the Crown, and transformed the administration of the kingdom into a kind of civil service. By 1520 he had entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey, who was at the peak of his powers in Henry's court. For Wolsey he dissolved some of the lesser monasteries in 1525 and was involved with the establishment of the cardinal's colleges at Oxford and Ipswich. Having entered Parliament in 1523, Cromwell pleaded in the House of Commons for Wolsey in 1529, when the cardinal fell from the King's favor.

  34. Entering the king's service in 1530, Cromwell rose rapidly: privy councillor in 1531, master of the jewels in 1532, chancellor of the exchequer in 1533, King's secretary in 1534, and vicar general in 1535. His religious views have been in doubt. However, he became firmly associated with a radical policy of reform and Reformation, writing most of the Reformation acts from 1532 to 1539, serving as the king's deputy as head of the English church in 1536, and carrying into effect the Act of Supremacy and the suppression of monasteries from 1536 to 1539.Cromwell's downfall resulted from his urging the King to marry Anne of Cleves to gain an alliance with her brother, a Protestant leader in western Germany. Henry hated this, his fourth, wife from the beginning, and the Protestant alliance was distasteful to him. Although Cromwell became Earl of Essex and l Lord Great Chamberlain, in 1540, his enemies persuaded the King that he was a traitor to both his religion and to the King. He was arrested, condemned without a hearing, and beheaded.

  35. MORE, Thomas (1478-1535). One of the most respected figures in English history, More was a statesman, scholar, & author. He was noted for his wit & also for his devotion to his religion. The great Dutch scholar Erasmus became his close friend. More, Erasmus, and John Colet, the distinguished dean of London's St. Paul's Cathedral, were leaders of a group of scholars & religious reformers. This group, which became known as the Oxford Reformers, did much to promote the Renaissance in England. More entered the profession of law, in which he gained distinction. His religious piety led him to fast, pray, and do penance. For a time he hoped to enter the priesthood. Throughout his life More's deep religious convictions dominated his actions.

  36. More became a member of Parliament. He was disliked by Henry VIII’s father, whom he opposed on financial matters. The accession of Henry VIII brought More to a high place at court. On Cardinal Wolsey's fall from power in 1529, More was made lord chancellor--the first time that the office had been held by a layman.When Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon, More as a loyal churchman resigned his office on the plea of ill health. He refused to acknowledge Henry's claim to be head of the English church. For this defiance the king had More--together with Bishop Fisher and others--committed to the Tower ofLondon on a charge of treason. He was beheaded on July 6, 1535. More is famous not only as a statesman and religious martyr but also as an author. 'A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation', written in 1534 while he was in prison, shows his faith and his calm courage. Perhaps his best-known work is his 'Utopia' (1516). Utopia, which is the name of an imaginary island with a happy society, free from all cares, anxieties, and miseries.

  37. Henry VIII --- his wives & his proclamation as head of the Church of England.

  38. Henry VIII & the English Reformation By the 1520s, some English clergy were toying with Protestant ideas. The final break resulted from a confrontation between the Catholic Church & Henry VIII of England. For political reasons, Henry wanted to end papal control over the English church. At first, Henry VIII stood firmly against the Protestant revolt. The pope even awarded him the title ‘Defender of the Faith’. Then, in 1527, after 18 years of marriage, Henry and his wife, Catherine of Aragon, had only surviving child, a daughter named Mary Tudor. (i.e., no male heir.) Henry VIII decided to remarry --- hoping for a male heir. Since the Catholic Church does NOT permit divorce, he asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his 18 year marriage.

  39. Henry VIII & the English Reformation Break with Rome:The Pope at that time was concerned about offending the powerful Holy Roman emperor, Charles V --- who was Catherine of Aragon’s nephew. Not surprising, therefore, he refused Henry VIII’s request. Henry VIII, obviously, was furious! Acting through Parliament, Henry VIII had a series of laws passed. The most notable of these laws was the Act of Supremacy (1534), that made Henry VIII, ‘the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England. In other words, the Church was placed under the control of Henry VIII.At the same time, Henry VIII’s archbishop annulled the marriage. Henry, then, married Anne Boleyn. She, too, bore only daughters.Henry VIII married four more times but only had one son, Edward. (His six wives are listed & depicted in subsequent slides.)

  40. Henry VIII & the English Reformation The reign of Henry VIII was marked by his break with the Roman Catholic Church for not granting him a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragón. Henry declared himself supreme head of the Church of England, initiating the Reformation in England.

  41. Between 1536 & 1540, Henry VIII shut down all convents and monasteries in England and seized their lands. This move brought new wealth to the royal treasury. Henry shrewdly offered aristocrats & others of high standing a share of the gains, thereby securing their support for the Anglican Church, as the new Church of England was called. • . Henry VIII & the English Reformation

  42. . • As the Protestant Reformation swept across northern Europe, a vigorous reform movement took hold within the Catholic Church. The movement was called the Catholic Reformationor counter-reformation. • Council of Trent: In 1545, the Pope called the Council of Trent to establish the direction of the reforms. The council met off and on for almost twenty years. Essentially, the council took steps to end abuses in the Church. It also established new schools to create a better-educated clergy who could challenge Protestant teachings. Council of Trent

  43. . The Inquisition-Religious Intolerance To deal with the Protestant threat more directly, Pope Paul III strengthened the Inquisition.The Inquisition was a Church court set up during the Middle Ages to root out heretics. The Inquisition used secret testimony, torture, and execution to stamp out heresy. It also prepared the Index of Forbidden Books, a list of works considered too immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read. Not surprising... included on the Index were books by Machiavelli, ML & Calvin. Widespread Persecution: In troubled times, people look for scapegoats. One group that was singled out for persecution were the Jews. The Jews had been expelled from Spain in 1492.

  44. . The Inquisition-Religious Intolerance At that time, Italy allowed Jews to stay. Yet, by the 1500s, there was pressure for Jews to convert. By 1516, Jews in Venice had to live in a separate quarter of the city, known as the ghetto.During the Reformation, restrictions of Jews increased. Some German princes expelled Jews from their lands. All German states confined Jews to ghettos or required them to wear a yellow badge if they traveled outside the ghetto. After 1550, many Jews migrated to Poland-Lithuania and to parts of the Ottoman Empire.

  45. When Henry VIII died in 1547, his 10-year-old son, Edward VI, inherited the throne. This set off religious turmoil. The young king pushed for Calvinist reforms. But, when Edward VI died in his teens, his half-sister Mary Tudor inherited the throne. She was a Catholic & was determined to make England, once again, a Catholic country. Obviously, she failed. When she died, Elizabeth I became queen. Edward VI

  46. Mary Tudor or ‘Bloody Mary’, became queen of England after the death of her brother, Edward VI. The daughter of Henry VIII, she became known as “Bloody Mary” after she burned more than 300 high-ranking Protestant clergymen during her five-year reign. She had hoped to restore the Roman Catholic church in England.

  47. . • In 1554, barely six months after • Mary ascended to the throne, a • plot against her was uncovered. • Although she had no proof, • Mary was convinced that • Elizabeth I was involved. Elizabeth • was imprisoned in the Tower of • London. Elizabeth I’s unjust • imprisonment made her even more • popular with the people. Even though • Elizabeth I preserved many traditional • Catholic ideas, she firmly established • England as a Protestant nation. Elizabeth I

  48. Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII & his second wife Anne Boleyn, ruled England from 1558 to 1603 during what is known as the Elizabethan Age. Elizabeth was Protestant & popular. Elizabeth’s reign was a time of great prosperity & achievement, & her court was a center for poets, writers, musicians, & scholars.

  49. Johann Tetzel sells indulgences. ML posts 95 Theses. Printing press helps to spread reform ideas. Calvin & other reformers preach against Catholic traditions. ML calls for Jews to be expelled from Christian lands. Cause & Effect: Reformation Roman Catholic Church becomes more worldly Humanists urge return to simple religion. Strong national monarchs emerge. Immediate Causes PROTESTANT REFORMATION LT Effects Peasants’ Revolt Founding of: Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglican Church, Presbyterianism, & other Protestant churches. HRE Weakened. Religious wars, Counter-Reformation Inquisition & anti- semitism