What is Accounting? • Method of reportingfinancial activity of a business • Financial transactions recorded in an orderly fashion
AccountingEquation Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
Assets Company Cars Anything of Value owned by the Business Office Furniture Building / Real Estate Cash / Accounts Receivable Office Equipment Office Supplies
Liabilities Money owed by the business Accounts Payable Taxes Due Mortgage Payable Office Supply Store Utilities Corporation
Financial Statements • Financial Statements • Written reports that describe the financial health of a company; prepared regularly on quarterly and annual basis. • Balance Sheet • Income Statement • Statement of Change in Owner’s Equity
Balance Sheet Reports assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity on a certain date Assets Anything of value that is owned by the business. Liabilities Money owed by the business (debts, accounts payable) Owner’s Equity Net worth of the business Financial Statements, cont.
Income Statement Financial Statement of a business that reports the revenue, expenses and the net income (loss) of a business for the fiscal period. Revenue Amount of money that a company earns Expenses Costs of maintaining and operating a business. Income/Profit Results when a business’s income is greater than its expenses. Loss Results when a business’s expenses are greater than its income. Fiscal Period Specific period of time covered by an accounting statement or report (1 month or year) Financial Statements, cont.
Financial Statements, cont. • Statement of Change in Owner’s Equity • Financial Statement of a business that reports the changes that have occurred in the owner’s equityaccount during the fiscal period.
Recording daily transactions Preparing financial statements Paying bills Preparing payroll checks Preparing tax forms Auditing financial records Examining financial records for accuracy and compliance with regulations Reconciling the checkbook Bringing the checkbook into agreement with bank statement Accounting Activitiesrelated to orderly record-keeping of financial information • What are other accounting activities?
Accepting deposits and processing withdrawals Preparing money orders and cashiers checks Opening new accounts for customers Processing loan applications Banking Activitiesoccur in banks, credit unions and savings and loans • What are other banking activities?
Analyzing budgets Buying and selling stock and other securities Consulting with businesses on financial matters Counseling investors Selling insurance Managing the finances for the entire company Finance Activitiesare related to investments and managing finances • What are other finance activities?
Financial Manager Top level professional who may have final responsibility for aspects of a business’ financial activity Accountant Professional who produces and examines financial records, prepares financial reports and tax returns; may give budget, tax or investment advice to company/customer Finance Careers
Finance Careers, cont. • Certified Public Accountant (CPA) • Accountants who meet specific educational requirements and pass a national examination • Auditor • Professional whose work involves checking on the accuracy of work completed by bookkeepers and accountants • Bank Teller • Bank employee who handles deposits, withdrawals, selling travelers check, accepting loan payments, preparing money orders
Check your understanding! • ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNER’S EQUITY. • Payroll Record • Budget • Accounting Equation • Money owed by the business (debts, accounts payable) • Revenue • Liabilities • Assets
Anything of of value that is owned by the business • Revenue • Loss • Assets • Net worth of the business • Liabilities • Owner’s Equity • Revenue
Check your understanding! • ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNER’S EQUITY. • Payroll Record • Budget • Accounting Equation • Money owed by the business (debts, accounts payable) • Revenue • Liabilities • Assets • Anything of value that is owned by the business • Revenue • Loss • Assets 4. Net worth of the business • Liabilities • Owner’s Equity • Revenue
What do Accountants do? • Track companies’ expenses • Prepare, analyze and verify financial documents • Look for ways to run businesses more efficiently • Keep public records • Make sure taxes are paid properly
Public Accountants • Perform audits • Prepare taxes for corporations, government agencies, nonprofits and individuals
Management Accountants Management accountants are members of the executive team who • Record and analyze information about budgets, costs and assets • Support strategic planning or product development • Write financial reports for stockholders, creditors or government agencies.
Government Accountants • Maintain and examine government records • Audit private businesses or individuals on the government's behalf
Internal Auditors • Are fiscal “police officers” • Verify the accuracy of an organization's financial records • Look for waste, mismanagement and fraud.
Job Outlook in Accounting • CPA accountants will continue to be in high demand, especially as states increase the education and experience requirements for the certification. • Certified Management Accountants and those with MBAs will also fare well.
Job Outlook in Accounting • Having a specialty, such as information systems, government regulation or international business, will help you land a job. • Those without a degree or certification and those vying for the upper-most echelons of accounting will find keen competition for jobs.
Education Requirements • A bachelor's degree is the minimum requirement, and to advance, you'll need additional certification or graduate-level education. • Those in the accounting field can earn the Certified Public Accountant designation by meeting experience and educational requirements and passing an exam.