Riverboat Tour of Ancient Egyptian Monuments • Importance of Pharaohs in society • 3 major periods of Ancient Egyptian History • Major accomplishments
Cairo Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo • Built at the beginning of the 20th Century in Cairo – Capital of modern Egypt.
Palette of Narmer • Made of Slate – 16 ½ in. wide 25 inches tall King Narmer wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, striking a prisoner. Historians believe that Narmer, the king of Upper Egypt, defeated the king of Lower Egypt around 3100BCE, united both regions, and proclaimed himself king of a unified Egypt.
Pharaoh • The word pharaoh, …is derived from the ancient Egyptian words ‘Per Aa’, which originally meant ‘The Great House’. This referred to the king’s palace, though from at least the New Kingdom onwards it also signified the king personally. • Egyptians believed their pharaoh was a good God who was responsible for keeping society in order and protecting Egypt from its enemies. Pharaoh.www.let.leidenuniv.nl/.../ Glossary/Pharaoh.html. 12/05/05.
Itinerary for Riverboat Tour of Nile • 3 main periods of history High points followed by periods of weakness and disorder • Old Kingdom: 2686 - 2181BCE • Age of the Pyramids • Stable rulership of Pharaohs • Middle Kingdom: 1991-to 1786 BCE • Period of Reunification • Achievements in Art Literature and Architecture • New Kingdom: 1554 to 1070 BCE • Egypt’s Golden Age • Conquest, expansion, grand monuments
Pyramids at Giza • Pyramids of pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. • Khufu’s pyramid (far right) Called the Great Pyramid
Pharaoh Khufu • Ruled during Old Kingdom • 2551-2528 BCE • Harsh ruler • Built Great Pyramid at Giza
Two Theories about how it was built: • Builders may have used a long ramp stretching out into the desert, and this ramp was continually lengthened and heightened as the pyramid rose higher. • Builders may have used a circular ramp that rose and wound around the pyramid face as it followed each layer of blocks upward. Interior of Great Pyramid at Giza It took thousands of workers a total of 20 years to complete the building of the Great Pyramid. They used more than 2,300,000 separate blocks each weighing about 6,000 lbs. Prompt: Create two simple drawings that show the 2 ways scholars believe the pyramids were built.
Pharaoh Djoser’s Step Pyramid Considered to be the world’s first stone building. Designed by pharaoh’s architect Imhotep Built between 2630 & 2611 BCE A mastaba or low flat tomb, with other increasingly smaller mastabas one on top of another
Djoser • Djoser – Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom 2630 -2611BCE • During his reign new developments in agriculture, increase in trade, development of cities. • Fought foreign invaders on Egypt’s eastern and western borders and expanded Egypt’s territory as far south as Aswan at the First Cataract (waterfall) 0f the Nile River. • Responsible for many buildings.
Famine Stela • After 7 years of famine, Djoser is advised to sail to Sehel Island where people worshipped the god Khnum, who was believed to control the annual flow of the Nile. • Legend says the god appeared to Djoser in a dream complaining about the condition of the shrine in his honor. • Djoser then built a new temple in his honor bringing a miraculous end to the famine. • 2000 years later a larger rock monument with a written inscription called the Famine Stela, was erected on Sehel Island to mark the achievement
Al Amarna • Site of Pharaoh Akhenaten’s city • Akhenaten banished polytheism and allowed only worship of Aten. • Nearly everything at the site was later destroyed by his successors, who resetablished Egyptian polytheism and tried to erase all memory of Akhenaten’s reign.
Akhenaten • Akhenaten ruled Egypt from 1353 – 1335 BCE during New Kingdom. The entire reign of this pharaoh, who was first known as Amenhotep IV, was marked by disputes, anger and controversy over his religious beliefs. Shortly after becoming pharaoh he change his religious beliefs. He turned away from polytheism including the God Amon, and began to worship Aten, the sun God. He took the name Akhenaten meaning “He Who Is of Service to Aten” . • He and his followers also abandoned the capital city of Thebes to start a new city named Akhetaten, the”Horizon of Aten”
Akhenaten and his followers created spectacular new buildings, ceremonies and craftspeople created works of art. These are notable for showing pharaoh in a more natural appearance and informal family scenes. • He not only insisted on worship of Aten, but began to attack and destroy the statues and sites of the other gods angering the Egyptians. At the time of his death he was so unpopular his successors destroyed almost everything he created Prompt: Create a simple drawing of one of Akhenaten’s subjects, with a voice bubble explaining why many Egyptians are upset with the pharaoh’s leadership.
reconstructed Jubilee chapel (White Chapel) at Karnak • Originally built out of limestone between 1971 and 1926 BCE • Erected during reign of Senusret I. • Masterpiece of Middle Kingdom architecture
Senusret I • Senusret I ruled ancient Egypt from 1971 – 1926 BCE and is is considered one of the Middle Kingdom’s most important pharaohs. • Strong ruler who waged war against Nubia and Libya extending Egypt’s southern and western borders. • Protected Egypt’s valuable resources in god, copper and granite in the Sinai. • Encouraged cultural development and building, creating elaborate improvements to existing shrines and temples.
Senusret’s reign is also noted for great craftwork and literature. • Examples of fine jewelry have been found in many tombs • Two of greatest works of Egyptian literature were composed during this period, One called “The Story of Sinuhe . • Artistic relief on one of the Jubilee Chapel’s pillars show Senusret being embraced by four gods, which are placed at one of the four corners of the earth. PROMPT:Create a simple drawing of a pillar that has an inscription listing the accomplishments of Senusret.
Temple of Pharaoh Hatshepsut • One of the few female rulers • Cut from cliffs that surround the site
Hatshepsut • Queen Hatshepsut pharaoh of the New Kingdom from 1473-1458 BCE • She became queen under unusual circumstances. She ruled jointly with her half-brother Thutmose II. When he died his heir was his son who was only 10 years old. She continued to share the reign with her nephew for a number of years until she finally declared herself pharaoh and became sole ruler.
Under Hatshepsut’s capable rule , the Egyptian economy grew significantly. She organized several trading expeditions to foreign lands, such as the land of Punt an African kingdom southeast of Egypt. A record of an expedition to Punt is carved on the walls of Hatshepsut’s temples. It shows 5 large sailing ships, carrying Egyptian goods down the Red Sea. The ships returned with valuable luxury goods that were not available in Egypt . These included gold, ivory, leopard skins, ostrich feathers, incense, rare woods, greyhounds, and cheetahs. Egyptians used some of these goods to create jewelry, furniture, and clothing.
When Hatshepsut died, her body disappeared. Some scholars believe that Thutmose III, her nephew and successor, who had been kept waiting to rule for years, played a role in her death. After she died, he destroyed many of the queen’s monuments, as well as much of the evidence of her rule. Prompt: Create simple drawings of three trade goods that were brought back from the expedition to Punt and explain why the Egyptians wanted those goods.
Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel • Ramesses II ruled in the new kingdom 1290 – 1224 BCE • In 1968 Moved from original site an rebuilt away from Nile river because of Aswan Dam
Ramesses II • Often called Ramesses the Great he is one of the most important pharaohs in Egyptian history. • He lived into his 80s and had more than 100 wives and fathered more than 100 children. • Named co-ruler with father at a young age. • Together they began huge building projects. • Ramesses most impressive accomplishments were a huge tomb at Thebes, his 2 temples at Abu Simbel and Ramesseum a giant mortuary temple in Western Thebes
Ramesses was a courageous military leader. His most famous battles were fought against the Hittites. This rival kingdom to the north controlled the city of Kadesh, north of Canaan, and threatened Egypt’s power and stability. Ramesses gather an army of 20,000 troops and set off for Kadesh. The Hittite ruler had gathered an even larger army of close to 40,000 men, with some 2500 chariots. Though badly outnumbered and at times close to defeat, Ramesses an his army rallied and fought the Hittites to a standoff. Ramesses returned home knowing that Egypt’s stability was no longer threatened. Prompt: Create a simple drawing of Ramesses battling with the Hittites. Above the drawing, add a thought bubble to show why he thinks he is Egypt’s greatest pharaoh.
Works Cited • “Riverboat Tour of Ancient Egyptian Monuments.” Egypt and the Near East. Teacher’s Curriculum Institute: Mountainview Ca. 1997.