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Permanency & Placement Version 2.1, 2011 Day 1

Permanency & Placement Version 2.1, 2011 Day 1

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Permanency & Placement Version 2.1, 2011 Day 1

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  1. Permanency & PlacementVersion 2.1, 2011Day 1

  2. Goals for the Training In this training we will cover: • The rules and regulations governing permanency and placement • The importance of permanency • Cultural differences in permanency & placement • The emotional and developmental consequences of placement • Placement decision making

  3. Learning Objectives • Review the Learning Objectives • Identify your priorities • Establish the learning priorities of the group

  4. Activity: What’s in it for Me? • What do I hope to learn in this training?

  5. Training Evaluation Testing, testing…

  6. What is Permanency? • Permanence • Legal Permanency Options • Emotional Permanency • Concurrent Planning

  7. Youth Permanency Essentials • Lifelong connections • Skills for living interdependently • Youth involvement

  8. History of Child Welfare Placement Complete the time line of events from 1854 to 2011

  9. Historical Timeline • 1854 – Orphan Trains • 1874 – Mary Ellen is protected in the first court intervention on behalf of a child • 1909 – The White House Conference on Dependent Children identifies two key values: • poverty alone is not grounds to remove children, and • children should be placed in homes, not institutions

  10. Historical Timeline • 1935 – Social Security Act • 1972 – Stanley vs. Illinois recognizes the rights of unwed fathers • 1974 – National Child Abuse Treatment and Prevention Act • 1978 – Indian Child Welfare Act • 1980 – Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act

  11. Historical Timeline • 1990 – Katz Concurrent Planning Study • 1994 – Multi-Ethnic Placement Act • 1996 – Interethnic Adoption Provisions • 1997 – Adoption and Safe Families Act

  12. Historical Timeline • 2001 – Promoting Safe and Stable Families Chafee Amendment • 2004 – AB 408 • 2005 – AB 1412 • 2012 – AB 12

  13. How far have we come? • What are the key positive developments? • Were you surprised by the timing of the events? • Where do we need to focus our change efforts?

  14. Laws and Policies Matching Game • Wait for all tables to receive the cards and instructions before turning the cards over • Match the card with the name of the law to the card with a longer explanation of the same law

  15. Foster Children’s Bill of Rights Enacted in 2001 and listed in WIC 16001.9 WIC requires the bill of rights be explained to every school-age child Any facility licensed to care for six or more children in must post the bill of rights

  16. The roles The family The factors to consider The decision Honorary Honorables

  17. Family Before the Court • The Washington Jackson children: • LaTrecee Washington, 6 • Joe Jackson, 6 • The adults in the home: • Rhonda Washington, 25 • Dale Jackson, 25

  18. Key Considerations • Cause for removal based on WIC 300 • Reasonable efforts (from the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act) • Remember ASFA time limits

  19. Key Considerations • Right to reunification services (ASFA, WIC) • Visitation (WIC) • Foster care drift

  20. Key Considerations • Best interest of the child • Ensuring placement decisions consider the child’s developmental needs

  21. Key Considerations • Non-custodial parents (WIC 361) • Placement in another state (ICPC) • Same-race placements (MEPA)

  22. Key Considerations • Tribal sovereignty and tribal connections (ICWA) • Active efforts (ICWA) • Tribal Customary Adoption (AC 1325) • Sibling visits (WIC) • School placement (AB 490)

  23. Key Considerations • Intersection of • ASFA • ICWA • MEPA • Working collaboratively with tribes • Conflicting guidelines • AB 408 • Caregiver selection • SAFETY

  24. Make a recommendation • What factorsneed to be considered? • How are you going to engage the parents? • How would you engage extended kin? • What are the educational needs of the children? • What is your recommendation?

  25. Remember to consider • Concurrent planning for permanency - • Plan A and Plan B should be established at the same time

  26. Permanency in California - Quiz Take your best guess! How do your experiences compare with the statewide data?

  27. What the numbers show… As of December 31, 2010, what percentage of children and youth in out-of-home placement in California are living with kin? Answer: a. 10% foster home b.34%relative home c. 29% foster family agency d. 7% group home e. 21% other

  28. What the numbers show … Overall in California, when children and youth are removed where are they most likely to be placed first? Answer: a. Kinship home 22% b. Foster home 19% c.Foster Family Agency45% d. Group home/Shelter 11% e. Other 3%

  29. What the numbers show … Some children and youth who are placed stay in foster care for only a few days. For those who stay at least eight days in placement, what percentage is still in out of home care one year later? Answer: c.55%

  30. What the numbers show … What percentage of foster care placements include some or all of a child’s siblings? Answer: c.73%

  31. What the numbers show … How many of the children in foster care on 1/1/11 had been in care for more than two years? Answer: d.41%

  32. What the numbers show … What percentage of foster children and youth in care for longer than 24 months have had more than 2 placements? Answer: b.67%

  33. What the numbers show … 59% of youth aging out of the system at age 18 were in care for 3 years or longer. 57% of youth who aged out of the system between 10/1/10 and 12/31/10 had completed high school or obtained a GED. 30% of youth who aged out of the system between 10/1/10 and 12/31/10 had a job.

  34. Substantiated Allegations in California Asian children: Underrepresented (3 per 1000) Black children: Overrepresented (22 per 1000) Hispanic children: Proportionate (9 per 1000) Native American children: Overrepresented (16 per 1000) White children: Underrepresented (7 per 1000)

  35. Children Removed from Home in CA Asian children: Underrepresented (1 per 1000) Black children: Overrepresented (10 per 1000) Hispanic children: Proportionate (3 per 1000) Native American children: Overrepresented (8 per 1000) White children: Proportionate (3 per 1000)

  36. All Children in Placement in California Asian children: Underrepresented (1 per 1000) Black children: Overrepresented (24 per 1000) Hispanic children: Proportionate (5 per 1000) Native American children: Overrepresented (17 per 1000) White children: Underrepresented (5 per 1000)

  37. What the numbers show …

  38. How did you do? • What surprised you? • What bothered you?

  39. Culture and Permanency • Families have values related to permanency • Social workers have values related to permanency • Cultural filters or cultural assumptions can impact permanency outcomes for children and youth

  40. Culture and Placement • Race is the single greatest predictor of adoption as a permanency outcome with African American children and youth much less likely to be adopted (McRoy, 2000) • African American youth are less likely to have legal permanency (Potter and Klein-Rothschild 2002)

  41. Median length of time in care • Black children: 32.3 months • White children: 28 months • Hispanic children: 31.3 months • Asian / Pacific Islander children: 28.9 months • Native American children: 33.8 months

  42. Percent adopted within 24 months • Black children: 25.9% • White children: 35.2% • Hispanic children: 28.5% • Asian / Pacific Islander children: 35.4% • Native American children: 28.6%

  43. Conflicting Data • African Americans more open to foster care and adoption of children with special needs • Relative caregivers interested in adoption • Relative caregiver not offered adoption as an option

  44. Key Message: Now that you know about this, what are you going to do about it?

  45. Multiple Transitions: A Child’s Point of View about Foster Care and Adoption Video

  46. Attachment Helps Children • Attain full intellectual potential • Develop a conscience • Trust others • Become self-reliant • Better cope with stress, frustration and jealousy • Overcome common fears and worries • Increase feelings of self worth Fahlberg, 1991

  47. Healthy Attachment • For infants and preschoolers • Exploration of surroundings* • Relaxed and happy demeanor • Looking at others when communicating* • Showing a response to separation* • Demonstrating typical fears *May vary by culture

  48. Implications of Separation • For infants and preschoolers • Distress at loss of trusted caregivers • Belief that the change is permanent • Belief that the separation is a punishment • Feeling powerless

  49. Healthy Attachment • For school age children • Healthy self-esteem • Pride in accomplishments • Willingness to try new things* • Establishing eye contact* • Reacting positively to parent • Positive peer interactions *May vary by culture

  50. Implications of Separation • For school age children • Anxiety • Guilt • Confusion about cultural differences in the foster home • Fear about siblings placed in other foster homes • Loneliness, isolation loss of friends