“Road to Revolution” The Mexican Nationalism Era Unit 4
Mexico versus Texas – Differences Arise • Cultural differences - Some did not make sincere efforts to become loyal citizens of Mexico, keeping their own customs. • Language was Spanish/laws and government • Started schools and even a newspaper. • Mexico thinks they are becoming too INDEPENDENT.
States Rights or Nationalism • Mexico was organized into states. • Constitution of 1824 established a states’ rights gov’t-one in which most powers are given to the state gov’t. (local control) • Texas became part of Coahuila y Tejasw/Saltillo as capital. • Mexican Nationalists felt power should belong to the national gov’t. • Feared too many settlers were moving to Texas and that they would try to seize Texas and join the U.S.
Jump Start • If you were a colonist writing a letter to family back east in 1824, what would you tell them about your new life in Texas? Would you invite them to come or advise them to stay put where they are? Why or why not?
Competing Land Claims • 1825 – Empresario Haden Edwards was awarded a large piece of land as an empresario and was allowed to settle 800 families near Nacogdoches. • When Edwards arrived at his land (in September) he discovered that there were already people living there (many had been there for generations) • MINE! No, it’s MINE!! – SHOW ME YOUR TITLE OR LEAVE! • Angered SFA & Settlers • The Political chief in the area sided with the settlers (against Edwards)
The Edwards Brothers • Haden Edwards strikes again and overturns an election in favor of his son-in-law. • People complain and Governor Blanco has had enough! • Gov. Blanco reverses the election, takes back the land grant, and kicks both brothers out of Texas. • Haden Edwards claims a loss of $50,000 and aligns himself w/the Cherokees who were lacking land grants.
JUMP START • ALL CLASSES need your ROAD sketch in your notebook as well as your “Road to Revolution” outline. • Pre-AP – You have 5-7 minutes to get your performance ready. • On-Level – Use your mystery object to write an analogy about how Haden Edwards is like that object. Example: Haden Edwards is like tape in that he got himself stuck in some sticky situations.
The Fredonian Rebellion • The Edwards brothers, Cherokee leaders, and settlers who supported their land claims declare INDEPENDENCE from Mexico to create the Fredonian Republic. • They take control of the OLD STONE FORT as their capital. • Angers SFA and Mexican Lt. Ahumadawho send militias to attack. • When word reaches the Edwards brothers, the flee to Louisiana, and the Cherokee leaders are killed for their involvement.
An Attempt to Purchase Texas • Mexico’s fears of settlers arriving from the U.S. w/secret ties increases w/the population. • President John Quincy Adams is hoping to gain voter support by seeking westward expansion opportunities. • He sends Joel R. Poinsett with an offer to purchase Texas for one million dollars. • Poinsett runs his mouth and Mexico refuses the offer---no deal made.
Political Cartoon Analysis Political cartoons are, just as the name implies, editorials in picture form. The cartoonist is expressing an opinion on an issue of controversy, blending fact with opinion. The drawings grab the reader‘s attention, often in a humorous way, and are designed to spark a reaction.
Cartoon Features • CARICATURE — distorting a person‘s features, but still keeping that person recognizable. Cartoonists draw George W. Bush with a long nose, close set eyes, and curly hair, frequently showing him wearing a cowboy hat. • STEREOTYPING – showing all persons of one group (religious, racial, national, occupational, etc.) as looking or acting the same. Teachers are often shown in cartoons wearing glasses down on the nose with their hair in a bun, held by a pencil. • SYMBOLS – using a sign or object to stand for something else. Uncle Sam, an eagle, or the Stars and Stripes stand for the United States. The political parties are represented by a Democratic Donkey and a Republican Elephant. A bear depicts Russia, and the lion is used to signify Great Britain. • SATIRE – pointing out something wrong and ridiculing it. Almost every cartoon is a satire. • LABELS – using written words to identify figures in a cartoon. • EXAGGERATION – overemphasizing a situation or portraying it as “bigger than life.‖ A cartoonist might show a problem as a bottomless pit.
Mexico’s Fears are Confirmed • The Anglo population continued to increase day after day. • The Edwards brothers, even though they were unsuccessful, had declared some form of independence during their rebellion. • The U.S. was now asking to purchase Texas. • Borders were not exactly very secure near the Sabine River and the north.
Mier y Teran Report • The Mexican government wanted to know what the heck was going on in Texas so the sent General Mier y Teranto investigate. • Teran told the Mexican government that Texans outnumbered Mexicans in East Texas by 10 to 1. • Worried about the growing American influence in Texas & settlers ignoring trade laws. • He also told the government that if they didn’t do something that “Texas could throw the whole nation into revolution.” • 1829 – Slavery is abolished to deter immigration.
JUMP START • Have out your journal and outlines.
North Ridge News Dear Parents and Students: The following directives from Central Office are effective immediately. 1. Girl’s athletics will no longer be offered beginning in January. 2. Only blue folders and binders will be accepted at Birdville I.S.D. 3. The addition of 15 extra instructional days will be added to the school year beginning in June. 4. Children will not be admitted to the snack bar line, only teachers. 5. Hall behavior- students will no longer be allowed to talk in the hall between classes. 6. All students will be required to wear school uniforms beginning in January. Please direct any questions to the administration office at (817) 547-5200.
Analyzing the Law of April 6th • Pre-AP – Work in your groups to rewrite your assigned article in 7th grade “friendly” language. Rewrite your interpretation in the box titled, “Say What?” We will work on the final column together. • On-Level – Read the details on your paper in your groups and decide what you think the big deal was. Then we will discuss and see if you were correct.
The Law of April 6th, 1830 • It was an effort to control Texas colonists, especially Anglo Americans. • The law alarmed Anglo Texans as they feared their economy and family connections in the U.S. would suffer. • It raised political questions as the Constitution of 1824 made these state issues, not the national government. • Even Mexicans in the area felt that the national government had gone too far!
Let’s Review… • He was often called the Napoleon of the West. • Santa Anna joined the army at 15. • He believed U.S. settlers were rebels and threats to national security w/no business in Mexico. • He often sent others to do his dirty work. • He owned a sword worth $7,000. • He lost the Battle of San Jacinto while he was taking a nap. • When he fled, he was ratted out by his own men following his orders to bow. • He was sent to New York City and introduced chewing gum to the U.S. • At 50, he marred 15 year old Delores de Tosta.
The Aftermath of the Law of April 6th • The Law of April 6thwas the turning point between Anglos and the Mexican Government. • President Anastasio Bustamente had ignored the Constitution of 1824 by creating a strong national government and an unstable environment. • The troops now in Texas were watching their every move and collecting custom duties (taxes). It became too much for the settlers. • And along came….Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna • Rose to power playing both sides of the government & using manipulation/good looks (role of general) • Posed as an opponent of the centralists in 1832 to gain loyalty from Anglo & Tejano settlers in revolution • Once SFA pledged their loyalty, Santa Anna went about seeking all power centralized in himself—dictatorship & ignored the Constitution of 1824
Pre-AP –Santa Anna Body Biography • Head-interpretation of thoughts, ideas, and dreams the person might have • Mouth-examples of quotes this person did or might have said • Legs and Arms -examples of work/deeds accomplished by the person • Heart-examples of family and close personal relationships that influenced the person • Spine-examples of the personality or character traits of the person (this is what drives the person to behave in a certain manner) • Feet-two reasons this person is significant in history
On-Level – Santa Anna Biopoem • Name of person:________________________________________ • Four character traits of person:________________________ • Position/job: ___________________________________ • Who longs for_____________________________________ • Who feels ________________________________________ • Who needs ________________________________________ • Who fears _________________________________________ • Who would like to see ________________________________ • Resident of ________________________________________ • Synonym: _________________________________________
JUMP START • If you are Stephen F. Austin, how do you calm the fears and anxieties of your colonists during this time in Texas? What speech would you give?
Conflict at Galveston • George Fisher became an empresario settling the former Edwards’ land claims. • Supposed to collect custom duties and stop smuggling in the areas. • Issued orders that said ships must report to the Brazos River which smugglers ignored. • A tense debate erupts among shippers and results in his removal. • When reappointed, he demands all ships pass through Anahuac on Galveston Bay which many thought was unfair.
Bradburn Increases Tensions • Colonel John Davis Bradburn, supporter of the Centralists, is directed to enforce laws that Mexican officials had long overlooked. • Angers settlers when he arrests, Madero over the issue of land titles that Bradburn thought violated the Law of April 6th. • He dismantled Liberty, a settlement that Madero had colonized. • Then he forced settlers to provide free materials, labor, and slaves to construct a new fort at Anahuac.
Disturbance at Anahuac • William T. Logan arrives at Anahuac from the U.S. looking for his 2 runaway slaves. • Bradburn refuses to give them up w/out papers. • Logan hires William B. Travis as his attorney, who tries to trickBradburn with a note about Logan and armed men. • Travis and his assistant, Patrick Jack, are arrested. • Settlers protest and Bradburn agrees if they promise to back down. • They do, but Bradburn fails to keep his promise and finds more troops.
Turtle Bayou Resolutions • Settlers still angry with Bradburn camped out near Turtle Bayou and sent John Austin for a cannon. • While they wait, they draft a statement to Mexico pledging: continued loyalty to Mexico and support for the Constitution of 1824 and Santa Anna. • After an investigation, Travis and Jack are released and Bradburn is quietly removed from his duties.
Battle of Velasco • John Austin is fighting his way back with the cannon aboard a ship on the Brazos River. • When they reached Velasco, Colonel Ugartechea refuses to let them pass. • Fighting breaks out and results in the 1starmed conflict between Texas and Mexico. (10 Texans to 5 Mexicans) • Mexican forces surrenderafter they run out of ammunition.
JUMP START You are a colonist that is unhappy with changes in the Mexican government. Your leader, Stephen F. Austin has been arrested and accused of treason as well. You want to let the Mexican leaders know how you feel but you don’t want to appear as a rebel. You decide to write a letter, but what do you include?
1832 The Convention of • Texans are pleased with early victories but still unhappy with the government. • Delegates are sent to San Felipe in October of 1832 to draft a new set of resolutions. • Austin is elected president of the convention and they pledge support for Mexico and the Constitution of 1824. • They ask for the repeal of the Law of April 6th, better protection from the Natives, public schools, and a separate state.
1833 The Convention of • After the first convention, Austin is sent to San Antonio to gather support. • Mexican officials there refuse to send the Texans’ requests. • There was NO right to petition either. • While Austin is away, delegates call another meeting in April of 1833. • William Wharton is the leader and the delegates draft the same requests as they had in 1832. • There was one EXCEPTION this time…they drafted a constitution for the new Mexican state of Texas.
Austin in Mexico • In April 1833, Austin arrives in Mexico City as a cholera epidemic is sweeping through the city as well as a revolution. • Austin’s meeting with Santa Anna is delayed because Santa Anna did not want to be in the city while so many people were dying of cholera. • Austin gets frustrated (he had been waiting for 3 months) and writes a letter to the delegates in San Antonio telling them to go ahead and establish their own government. • In November, Santa Anna finally meets with Austin and agrees to some of the resolutions… but will not grant statehood.
Austin’s Arrest • Austin leaves Mexico in December of 1833, but was arrested when he reached Saltillo. • His previous letter was intercepted and viewed as a challenge to Mexican authority. • He was accused of treason, but never formally charged or tried in court. • He was imprisoned in Mexico City and placed in solitary confinement for most of his time there. • He would remain in prison until December of 1834, then house arrest, and finally returned home in the summer of 1835.
JUMP START • Welcome back! • Copy your agenda for this week in your planners! • In your journal, define the word UNREST. Make a list of examples, either historical or current, that personify, or bring to life, this definition. • Example: The U.S. is in a state of unrest after the most recent presidential election.
Mexican Troops Return to Texas • Santa Anna is now dictator after dismissing the Mexican Congress and writing a new constitution that gave him sole power. • People across Mexico are angry. • General Cos (Santa Anna’s brother-in-law) is sent to stop any rebellions. • Anahuac is in chaos AGAIN! • Travis is chosen leader.
War & Peace Parties • Settlers are divided and torn over what to do about Santa Anna. • The War Party believes that fighting, or armed resistance, and immediate independence should be the only option. • The Peace Party is favoring a wait-and-see policy. • These groups were FACTIONS, but not yet political parties.
Centralist Reaction • Tenorio is demanding the arrest of Travis and Lorenzo de Zavala when Austin returns. • Stephen F. Austin says war is our only option after a change of heart during his prison stay. • “War is our only recourse. There is no other remedy. We must defend our rights, ourselves, and our country by force of arms.”
The Battle of Gonzales • General Cos is reminded that the citizens of Gonzales have a cannon that was given to the DeWitt colony for defense against the natives. • His decision to retrieve it with the Mexican army results in the 1st armed conflict of the Texas Revolution. • Texans shoot first and Mexicans retreat to San Antonio. • The battle showed that Texans were becoming more defiant and more willing to use military force if necessary.
Army of the People • The Battle of Goliad was a huge confidence boost. • It convinced Texans that the Mexican army could be defeated easily. • The Texans’ control of Goliad would cut off a major supply route for the army as well. • The Army of the People organizes quickly and grows 600+ people with Stephen F. Austin chosen as leader. • The group fought to seize control of San Antonio.
The Consultation • The War Party wants independence. • Peace Party wants to remain loyal to Mexico but fight for the Constitution of 1824. • The vote results (33 to 15) in a Peace Party win, but the group does decide to write a declaration. • They also establish a provisional (temporary) government with Henry Smith as governor. • SFA is sent to the U.S. on a mission to raise troops and money for their cause. • Sam Houston becomes the overall military commander.
The Attack on San Antonio • The month long siege of San Antonio continues with some having to return home to their families. • “Grass Fight” – humiliates Texas • Texans learn that Cos is dangerously low on supplies. • Dec. 5th – Led by “Old” Ben Milam, Texans attack and battle for the city for 5 days. • Two free African Americans, Greenbury Logan and Hendrick Arnold, help in the fight. • Cos surrenders, turns over supplies, and vows loyalty to Constitution of 1824.
“Unrest-O-Meter” Group Activity • Work in your groups to review each event leading up to the Revolution. You can use your outline or the summary provided. • Decide how much unrest this event actually created in Texas during this time. Use a 9 point scale, with 1 meaning little unrest and 9 meaning maximum unrest. Shade in the meter accordingly. • Explain your reasoning under the “Rationale” column. • Review the rubric for how you will be assessed.