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Classical Realism. Aristotle 384-322 B.C. He was a student at Plato’s Academy He opened his own school, The Lyceum. Aristotle’s Ontology. Prime Matter Principle of Potentiality Pure Form Principle of Actuality
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Classical Realism • Aristotle • 384-322 B.C. • He was a student at Plato’s Academy • He opened his own school, The Lyceum.
Aristotle’s Ontology • Prime Matter • Principle of Potentiality • Pure Form • Principle of Actuality • FORM and MATTER are separate concepts, but they are never found alone, but matter is prior to form.
Aristotle’s Epistemology • The Universe is one of orderly design • All things exist according to a rational design • All things have a rational function or purpose. • Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm trees • Man’s defining characteristic is Rationality. • Homo Sapiens- the rational animal. • Syllogistic Logic • All men are mortal • Socrates is a man • Therefore, Socrates is Mortal
Aristotle’s Epistemology THEORY OF CASUATION
Aristotle’s Axiology • The Golden Mean is described as "the smaller is to the larger, what the larger is to the whole.“ • It's also known as the Golden Section or the Divine Proportion. It divides a line in such a way as to create an ideal relationship between the parts.
Man’s purpose is to lead a rational life of moderation. • The “Good” life is one of avoiding extremes
Francis Bacon Modern Realism Ontology Argued against Syllogistic logic. Deductive A priori reasoning is flawed because you have TRUTH in hand before you begin. Truth is arrived at through reason (inductive reasoning). The Material world exists independent of human minds
Modern Realism Francis Bacon Epistomology The scientific (inductive)method • Hypothesis • Gather evidence • Formulate Theory Axiology • The good life is attained through scientific skepticism. • Examine all previously accepted knowledge.
AIMS of EDUCATION Idealism As APhilosophy of Education • Absolutist- The search for “TRUTH”- True Ideas • Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively. • Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization • Character Development • Wisdom • Moral conviction • Good will • Loyalty
METHOD of EDUCATION Idealism As APhilosophy of Education • Depth over breadth • Concepts over specific facts • Confront problems that arise from the “human condition.” • “Self-Directed” learning • Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information
CURRICULUM Idealism As APhilosophy of Education • Materials that promote “critical thinking.” • Focus on reading and writing. • Reading materials should foster discussion of “big ideas.” • Classic works are favored because they have passed the test of time. • Student writing should emphasize both personal expression and clear reasoning.
ROLE OF THE TEACHER Idealism As APhilosophy of Education • Socrates might serve as the prototype • Socratic questioning • Teachers serve as role models • Intellectual • Moral • An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more than just an occupation
Aims of Education Realism as a Philosophy of Education • Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the natural and physical world • Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of problem solving by exploring the material world • Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts- “3Rs” There are objective skills and facts that all students should learn. • Character Development: • Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold students accountable • Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for the world of work
Methods of Education Realism as a Philosophy of Education • Direct teaching techniques are preferable. • Students should be presented information in an organized, efficient and logical format. • Given the “information overload” in today’s society, it is important that “non-essential” learning should be eliminated. • Students should be taught based upon their strengths and abilities. • Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and place students in settings most appropriate to their needs • Technology should be utilized whenever appropriate in schools
Curriculum Realism as a Philosophy of Education • Curricula should be practical and useful • Curricula should concentrate on the “Basics” and avoid fads and frills. • Curricula should be highly organized, correlated and aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by schools • Curricula should be based upon pre-established standards and criteria. • Curricula should be “experiential” whenever possible
Role of the Teacher Realism as a Philosophy of Education • A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert. • A Realist teachers should be able to present material in an organized and systematic way. • A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner. • A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess students in such a way that all students are challenged and motivated to learn. • A Realist teacher should understand current research and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom.
Pragmatism • A 20th Century Philosophy • Often considered to be the “American” philosophy • William James • George Herbert Mead • John Dewey
The either/or of the two positions John Dewey – Experience and Educationp. 19
Ontology • “What is real?” This is not a useful question.Human beings process perceptions through our senses and construct concepts or ideas. Reality is being constantly constructed through our experiences.
Epistemology • Truth is relative to a particular time, culture, place. We learn by making meaning of our experiences. We learn by solving meaningful problems.
Axiology • We derive our moral sense through the social consciousness of the human race. Through personal experience we form habits, beliefs, feelings and emotions. These are always shaped by our social world.
Aims • Education is a social process and school is a form of community life. School should promote personal growth on the part of every child.
Methods • Methods should emerge from an understanding of a child’s powers and interests. A teacher should guide a child towards educative experiences that connect personal growth within community.
Curriculum • Curriculum should grow out of life experiences. It should be centered in authentic problem solving and inquiry.
Role of the Teacher • The teacher should be a guide, not a dispensor of information. Teachers should know their students and their subjects equally well so they can direct students towards educative experiences