Top Ten Things I Wish I Knew About SW-PBS 20 Years Ago Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports www.pbis.org
Starting Point…. • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies Music
High School Outcomes…. • Triton High School • 48% Free and reduced lunch • 59% reduction in suspension • Halved the drop out rate • Mountain View High School • 30% free and reduced lunch • 30% reduction in ODR • Last to first in achievement in district
RCT & Group Design SW-PBS Studies Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
10. Assistant Superintendents, Curriculum Coordinators, Business Managers, Principal Reassignment Policies, Teacher Transfers….. • “7 years of college down the drain” • Function vs. Job Title • Stake Holders
9. Non-Classroom & Momentum • Outcomes = buy in • Continue to highlight • Track at-risk students within
8. The Ship has Got to Sail • Focus on the 80% • Apply problem solving / function based logic to those still on the dock
7. Data is not a “four letter word” • Does it answer your questions • Consistency • Agreement • And yes, it really is important that you send data to your province/district/region contacts on time
6. All in the Family • Build plans for connections early and revisit often • Connection Levels across tiers of support • Awareness • Involvement • Support
5. Its still all about the classroom • Classroom Management Basics • “When I Need It” • Who do I go see? • What should I expect? • How do I monitor?
Classrooms • Keep in mind: • Most problem behaviors occur in the classroom • Effective social and academic instruction is essential for ALLclassrooms • Classrooms are “personal”
Importance of Effective Instruction(Sanders, 1999) • The single biggest factor affecting academic growth of any population of youngsters is the effectiveness of the classroom. • The answer to why children learn well or not isn't race, it isn't poverty, it isn't even per-pupil expenditure at the elementary level. • The classroom's effect on academic growth dwarfs and nearly renders trivial all these other factors that people have historically worried about.
So one of our own is now blaming everything on the teacher!! If classroom teachers are struggling, it is a systems issue NOT an individual teacher issues
Creating Effective Classroom Environments • Insuring ALL faculty and staff engaging in effective instruction and classroom management • Align resources to challenges • Work within existing organization structure • Raze and rebuild • Must build an environment that simultaneously supports student and adult behavior
On school reform… Kauffman states “…attempts to reform education will make little difference until reformers understand that schools must exist as much for teachers as for students. Put another way, schools will be successful in nurturing the intellectual, social, and moral development of children only to the extent that they also nurture such development of teachers.” (1993, p. 7).
Essential • Classroom expectations & rules defined and taught (all use school-wide, create classroom examples) • Procedures & routines defined and taught • Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior in place and used with high frequency (4:1) • Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior in place and used per established school-wide procedure • Students are actively supervised (pre-corrects and positive feedback) • Students are given multiple opportunities to respond (OTR) to promote high rates of academic engagement • Activity sequence promotes optimal instruction time and student engaged time • Instruction is differentiated based on student need
4. Free to a Good Home: Tier II • Ownership “case manager(s)” • What students should be in the club • Screening • Data Decision Rules • Connect points to Universals / Tier III / other specialized support • Classroom problem solving teams • Systems, Systems, Systems
3. Stages & Phases Systems • Exploration • Installation • Initial Implementation • Full Implementation • Innovation • Sustainability Individual Learning • Acquisition • Fluency • Maintenance & Generalization
Meaningful PD Outcomes Staff Development Change in Teacher Practice Change in Student Outcomes Change in Teacher Beliefs A Model of the Process of Teacher Change Guskey, 1986
2. Mimicry Sincerest Form of Flattery • Good Consumers • Be prepared for next “hot topic” • “Modest” Bragging
1. Repetition Builds Fluency • Data • What do we need to put in place • Is it working • Practices • Research to support • “Buy in” • Systems • Training & Technical Assistance
Remember • We can’t “make” students learn or behave • We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity