UWE BristolHarvard referencing at UWE UWE Library Services
Academic knowledge • develops by examining the ideas and work of others, and building on these. • new ideas are treated like someone’s property. • academic honesty is therefore paramount. • using other people’s ideas, words, images without acknowledgement is dishonest and is known as plagiarism .
Plagiarism • a form of cheating. • can be deliberate or unintentional • is an assessment offence • Collusion • producing a piece of work with others that you claim is all your own work. • another form of academic dishonesty. • also an assessment offence
Avoid plagiarism by: • keeping accurate records of your sources – as you find them. • identifying material that needs referencing. • paraphrasing, summarising and quoting correctly. • referencing correctly, by citing within your text and providing a list of references.
Referencing allows you to: • acknowledge that you’ve used someone else’s ideas. • identify the sources of these. • demonstrate that you’ve read around the topic, and show how you’ve developed your own ideas. • substantiate your arguments. • enable your reader to follow up your source material. • ...and so, avoid plagiarism, even when unintentional.
Harvard referencing system at UWE • a standard method for describing a document . • elements of the reference are given in a particular order and format, separated by specific punctuation. • Citations in text link to full references at end of work. • Based on author and year of publication. • References listed in alphabetical order of authors
Book List all the authors. Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title.Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordon, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Use ‘and’ not ‘+’ or ‘&’ Capitalise each main word of the book title Edition noted
Electronic Book Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title [online].Edition (if not first). Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed: DD Month YYYY]. Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordon, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise [online]2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing [Accessed 07 September 2011]. Add [online] after the title. No need to give a URL. Add [Accessed] and the date at the end Use 2 digits and full month and year for the date format
Journal article Use of ‘and’ Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title. Volume no. (Part no.),page numbers. Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal.8 (3), pp. 450-600. NO capitalisation of the article title Capitalisation of the Journal title Use of ‘pp.’ for a range of pages
Electronic journal article Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title [online] . Volume no. (Part no.),page numbers. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal [online].8 (3), pp. 450-600. [Accessed 21 July 2011]. Add [online] after the journal title Add the Accessed date No need to give a URL
Web page Organisation where an individual author is not evident Author surname, Initials. / Organisation (Year of publication)Title of Internet Site. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. Royal College of Nursing (2009) Learning and Education. Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk /development/learning[Accessed 22 December 2010].
Citing within your text ....( Author surname, Year of publication )... Up to 3 authors: list all More than 3 authors: use 1st author, followed by et al. The need for care and guidance (Pearson et al., 2007) is evident. Pearson et al. (2007, p.4 ) state that ‘decision making in health care has changed profoundly’. For direct quotations, add page number(s) Use first author’s surname, followed by et al.
Help and more • Step 1: Help yourself • iSkillZone – guide to referencing • mySkills • Library workshops • Step 2: Ask a Librarian • Step 3: Make an enquiry
Newspaper article Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Newspaper. DD Month of publication,page number of the article (if given). Weaver, M. (2010) The Chilean miners: who’s who at the surface. The Guardian.14 October, p. 5. NO capitalisation of the article title, except proper nouns Capitalisation of the Newspaper title Use of ‘p.’ for a single page
Television Programme Year of first broadcast is more relevant than a repeat date Title of Series (Year of first broadcast) Series number, Episode number, Episode title if applicable [TV]. Channel,DD Month of first broadcast. Yes, Prime Minister (1986)Series 1, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast[TV].BBC Two,16 January. Information on the dates and series/episode numbers can be usually found on the internet No need to repeat the year
Interview on TV/Radio Year of broadcast given once Surname of person being interviewed, Initials. (Year of interview)Title of interview (if any). Interview with Interviewee’s name OR Interview by Interviewer’s name.Title of publication or broadcast, Channel,Date of broadcast DD Month. Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair.The Andrew Marr Show, BBC One, 05 September. There may not be an official title for the interview, but it should be included where there is one Use a zero to make the ‘day’ a two-digit number
Video Sharing (e.g. YouTube, Dailymotion, Vimeo etc) Name of person/organisation posting the video. (Year of posting)Title of the video. Title of the internet web site[video]. DD Month of posting.Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. International News 24/7 (2010) France faces strikes and protests over pension reform. YouTube[video]. 07 September. Available from: http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=O_S6mldSB9k [Accessed 13 September 2010]. Year of posting given once A link to the video and date of viewing are important Use a zero to make the ‘day’ a two-digit number
Blogs Year of posting given once Capitalisation: first letter of the entry, first letter of all words in the blog name Author surname, Initials. (Year of posting)Title of the blog entry. Title of blog. DD Month of posted message. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. Rogers, S. (2010) Local council spending over £500: full list of who has published what so far.Data Blog. 10 September. Available from: http://www.guardian .co.uk/news/datablog/2010/sep/10/local-council-spending-over-500-list[Accessed 13 September 2010]. Most blogs can be accessed by anyone, so include the URL They might be edited, so include the accessed date.
Social Networking web site(e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc) Author surname, Initials. (Year of posting)Title of the group/page. Title of Social Network Site [online]. DD Month of posting. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. Smith, J. (2010) UWE Bristol.Facebook [online]. 13 June.Available from: http://www. facebook.com/#!/uwebristol [Accessed 22 December 2010]. Year of posting given once Include the URL, even if the reader is not ‘friends’ with the person/ organisation Include the accessed date.
Image or illustration(accessed electronically) The date the artwork was created may not be exact. Include c. to denote ‘circa’ Artist surname, Initials. (Date of creation)Title of the work [medium]. At: place where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work [online]. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY]. Turner, J.M.W. (c.1925-30) Sunrise [Watercolour on paper]. At: London: Tate Britain [online]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk [Accessed 19 December 2010]. Note the location and Gallery where an artwork is housed On this example the medium [e.g. watercolour] is noted as well as where it was seen [online]
Music or spoken word recordings Composer surname, Initials. (Year of publication)Title. Subsidiary Originator (e.g. performer, conductor). Place of distribution: Distribution Company. Bach, J.S. (1850) The Goldberg Variations. Hans Bischoff, conductor. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing. Capitals for each of the main words in the title. Note the role that the subsidiary originator played.