Responder Safety AwarenessTraining Aid For All-Hazards Response
Table of Contents • Introduction 1 • Physical & Chemical Hazards • Falls 4 • Driving & traffic 7 • Electrical 12 • Chainsaw operation 14 • Eye injuries 16 • Confined spaces 17 • Structural integrity/collapse 19 • Debris piles/unstable surface 31 • Overhead hazards 33 • Heavy equipment 34 • Flash floods 35 • Temperature stress 36 • Noise 42 • Chemical exposure 43 • Dusts 45 • Carbon monoxide 47 • Hazard Communication 48 • Health Hazards 49 • Standing water 50 • Trench foot 52 • Mold 54 • Water-borne disease 55 • Food-borne disease 57 • Sanitation/hygiene 58 • Blood-borne disease 59 • Animals & insects 62 • Snakes 63 • Poisonous plants 64 • Traumatic stress 65 • Wildfires69 • FIRE Orders 70 • FIRE Watch Outs 71 • LCES and Checklist 72 • Fire Environment Factors 75 • Credits/Resources 76
Employer and Worker Responsibilities Employers and workers have responsibilities under the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act. • The OSH Act requires employers to provide a safe and healthful workplace, free of recognized hazards, and follow Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) standards. Employers' responsibilities also include providing training, medical examinations, and recordkeeping. • Workers must follow the employer's safety and health rules and wear or use all required gear and equipment; follow safe work practices for their job, as directed by their employer; report hazardous conditions to a supervisor; and report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not fix them.
Introduction • History has shown physical injuries are primary contributors to responder morbidity during major weather events. • Many hazards created by natural disasters are similar or identical to those created by man-made events, i.e. structural collapse. • Injuries may result from • Vehicle accidents • Struck by • Falls • Contusions • Lacerations
Introduction General Considerations • Walking over and handling debris that is unstable can cause cuts, scrapes, bruises, sprains, etc. • Remain current with tetanus vaccination. • Revaccinate for a dirty wound if current vaccination is over 5 years old. • If you will be performing direct patient care or otherwise expected to have contact with bodily fluids, get the Hepatitis B vaccine series. • Avoid contact with stagnant water. • Wash and sanitize immediately if exposed. • Consider steel toe/shank non-slip footwear if available. • Use durable gloves when handling debris. • Use hearing protection for noisy environments. • Know your medicines, allergies, and blood type.
Introduction Emergency in the Field If there is an emergency field: • Consult the Medical Plan (ICS Form 206). • Follow your agency Standard Operating Procedures. • Notify your supervisor immediately!
Falls • Responders must be protected from potential falls when working more than six feet above next lower level. • Fall protection such as guardrails, coverings over floor holes, or personal fall arrest systems shall be installed conforming to 29 CFR 1926 Subpart M.
Falls - Ladders • Ladders can create a falling hazard. Make sure your ladder is heeled & secured: • Position portable ladders so the side rails extend at least 3 feet above the landing with a 75° angle. • Use only ladders that comply with OSHA or NFPA standards.
Falls - Aerial Apparatus & Lifts • Only trained and authorized people may operate the lift. Read and understand the safety and operating instructions including all warning decals or labels. • The lanyard should be properly attached to the worker’s harness and designated anchor point on the lift as per manufacturers recommendations for all equipment involved. • Check for overhead obstructions before driving or elevating the platform. • Never use near electric lines unless they are deenergizied or adequate clearance is maintained. • Refuel tanks only when the unit is off and charge batteries in a well ventilated area away from open flames. • Conduct a visual inspection and a function test prior to use. • Elevate the lift only when it is on a firm and level surface.
Driving Every year in the U.S. there are 15,000 fire apparatus accidents. Accidents range from open doors being knocked off to incidents that have resulted in 5,500 lost-time firefighter injuries. Cost: > $7 billion.
Traffic Issues • Be prepared for delays. • Watch for other drivers. • Flaggers may be hidden or obstructed by larger vehicles. • Potential Hazards: • Congestion • Power lines • Multiple entrances/exits to roadway • Hidden entrances/exits • 2 way traffic • No signage entering the zone • Limited visibility for traffic • Worker with multiple tasks • Flagging & truck loading
Work Zone Safety • High visibility garments: While such garments may make a worker m conspicuous to approaching drivers, they do not offer any actual protection from traffic. Such garments must be used in conjunction with other traffic safety means. • Before work begins in the vicinity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic that may endanger employees, warning signs and/or flags or other traffic control devices shall be placed conspicuously to alert and channel approaching traffic. Where further protection is needed, barriers shall be utilized. At night, warning lights shall be prominently displayed, and excavated areas shall be enclosed with protective barricades. • Any crossed or fallen wires which create or may create a hazardous situation at the work area must be identified and reported. • Signs and symbols shall be visible at all times when work is being performed, and shall be removed or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist. • If work exposes energized or moving parts that are normally protected, danger signs shall be displayed and barricades erected, as necessary, to warn other personnel in the area.
Component Parts of aTemporary Traffic Control Zone • When operations are such that signs, signals, and barricades do not provide the necessary protection on or adjacent to a highway or street, flagmen or other appropriate traffic controls shall be provided. • Hand signaling by flagmen shall be by use of red flags at least 18 inches square or sign paddles, and in periods of darkness, red lights. • Flagmen shall be provided with and shall wear a yellow or orange warning garment while flagging. Warning garments worn at night shall be of reflectorized material. Termination Area Transition Area Advance Warning Area
Minimum Signs Recommended in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
Downed Power Lines and Cables • Treat all down lines as energized. • Verifying that a power line is not energized may not ensure safety. • Lines on both the load and supply sides must be grounded. • Generators must be grounded to protect from feedback electrical energy. • Ground fault interrupters (GFI) must be used.
Downed or Exposed Power Lines • Look for overhead power lines and buried power line indicators. Post warning signs. • Contact utilities for buried power line locations. • Stay at least 10 feet away from overhead power lines. • Unless you know otherwise, assume that overhead lines are energized. • Get the owner or operator of the lines to de-energize and ground lines when working near them. • Other protective measures include guarding or insulating the lines. • Use non-conductive wood or fiberglass ladders when working near power lines. • All electrical equipment, including generators, extension cords, lighting, and power tools, shall meet applicable OSHA, NFPA, and NEC standards. Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) shall be installed on all 15A and 20A temporary wiring circuits.
Chain Saws • Operate, adjust, and maintain per manufacture’s instructions. • Keep chain properly sharpened and lubricated. • Periodically check chain tension. • Choose the the right saw for the right job. • Wear appropriate PPE: • Hard hat, gloves, eye protection, chaps, hearing protection, and boots.
Chain Saws • Avoid all contact with power lines until verified to be de-energized by power company. • Always work with saw at waist level or below. • When felling a tree, no one closer than 2 tree lengths away (min. 150’). • When cutting a fallen tree, no one should be closer than 30 feet.
Eye Injuries • Use safety glasses with side shields as a minimum. • An eye wear retainer strap is suggested. • Consider safety goggles for protection from fine dust particles or for use over regular prescription eye glasses. • Any worker using a welding torch for cutting must have special eye wear to protect against welding flash. • Welding flash causes severe burns to the eyes and surrounding tissue. • Use only protective eyewear that has an ANSI Z87 mark on the lenses or frames.
Confined Spaces What is a Confined Space (CS)? What is a Permit-Required CS? O2 deficiency/enrichment Entrapment Engulfment Hazardous atmosphere Any other recognizable hazardous environment • Limited access & egress • Large enough to enter • Not designed for occupancy Your Safety Officer Must Approve Confined Space Entry!!!!
Confined Space Questions to ask: • Entrant & attendant trained? • Monitor & ventilate? • Lock-out & tag-out? • Issue appropriate PPE? • Establish traffic barriers? • Provide means of entry & egress? • Communication & alarm systems? • Rescue equipment/personnel on-call or stand-by?
Structural Collapse Collapse may be the result of earthquakes, wind, or flooding. • Specific hazards and effects may include: • Aftershocks • Damage to utilities • HazMat releases • Landslides • Avalanches • Fires
What is an Earthquake? • An earthquake is a sudden, rapid shaking of the ground caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the earth's surface. • Earthquakes occur along fault lines. • Earthquakes have three different shifting patterns (illustrated to the left). • Earthquakes may occur at any time with little or no advanced warning. • An earthquake’s magnitude or “energy release” is measured on the Moment magnitude (Mw) scale.
What is the Meaning of Earthquake Magnitude? In 1935, while at the Seismological Laboratory, Charles Richter worked with Beno Gutenberg to develop a rating scale for earthquakes. The scale has become known as the Richter Scale. The scale had the following classifications for earthquakes and their severity: • Felt by instruments only. • Felt by sensitive people and sensitive animals. • Felt by many people. • Felt by everyone; pictures fall off of walls. • Damage. • Destructive earthquake in populated areas. • Major earthquake causing serious destruction. • Total destruction of nearby communities. • An earthquake more than one 100 million times more powerful than category one. For decades, the Richter Scale proved to be the accepted measurement for earthquakes. In recent years, scientists have begun to use the Moment Magnitude Scale, which is much more precise than the Richter Scale. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2666
Where Is an Earthquake Most Likely to Occur in the U.S.? The greatest likelihood of a major earthquake is in: • The western United States; residents of California face the highest risk. • The New Madrid Fault Zone crosses Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Kentucky & Tennessee; four million people along the New Madrid Fault Zone are at risk. • A few pockets on the east coast; for example, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Fifteen percent of the U.S. population lives in zones of potential major disaster. San-Andreas Fault
High Risk Earthquake Zones Source: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 017-03
What is an Aftershock? • An earthquake that occurs after a previous quake. • Occurs in the same area as the main quake. • Lesser magnitude. • May still cause damage and instability.
Landslides and Avalanches • A landslide is an abrupt downhill movement of soil and bedrock. • They can be triggered by earthquakes, hurricanes, floods or other natural causes. • They can create ground movement from rock falls, deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows. • An avalanche is flow of snow or ice down a mountain. • Both may contain victims.
Structural Fires • Structural fires are often the leading cause of property damage and casualties in the aftermath of a natural disaster. • Debris left from a fire may smolder for days to weeks.
Structural Collapse Risk Factors The following increase risk of structural collapse: • Areas near fault lines • Structures built on unstable soil and rock • Structures not built to earthquake grade standards • Structures built on steep slopes and areas prone to landslides and liquefaction.
Structural Collapse Events • Structural Integrity • Earthquakes can severely damage structures, such as buildings, bridges, and dams. • Never assume that damaged structures or ground is stable. • Assume all stairs, floors, and roofs are unsafe until inspected. • Look up and be aware of hidden and/or overhead risks. • Determine if any hazardous materials have been on the property.
Structural Collapse • How to reduce injuries at structural collapse • Engineered shoring and bracing plans are required. • Ensure all workers are trained and authorized to be in the work area. • Create a limited access zone around the structure. • Height of structure (ft) + 4(ft) • Be alert for signs of a secondary collapse. • Wear appropriate PPE: • Steel toed boots, gloves, hard hat, and eye protection
Debris Piles and Unstable Surfaces • Do not walk on unstable surfaces. • Use other ways to get to work, such as bucket trucks or designated walk-ways. • Look for smoldering material on or beneath the surface. • Lookout for hazardous materials. • Wear personal protective equipment. • Wear fall protection with appropriate anchor points.
Handling Debris and Sharp Materials • Before disasters, always remain up-to-date on tetanus vaccinations. • Wear appropriate PPE: • Hard hat, safety shoes, eye glasses, and heavy work gloves • Clean all/any wounds with soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment. • Contact doctor/medical aid to determine if additional medical assistance is necessary.
Overhead Hazards and Falling Debris • Injuries to disaster site workers are often the result of falling material and debris related to unstable structures. • Overhead falling hazards may include: • loose debris, • building components, and • unsecure building contents such as bathtubs, refrigerators, furniture, and HVAC units. Take extra precaution when working in these areas. Follow safe work practices and wear appropriate PPE, such as hard hat, work clothes, safety shoes, gloves, safety glasses, and respirator.
Heavy Equipment • Be alert to the activities around you. • Do not exceed the load capacity of cranes and other lifting equipment. • Do not walk under or through areas where cranes and other heavy equipment are lifting objects. • Do not climb onto or ride loads being lifted or moved. • Use outriggers when operating equipment on unstable ground. • Do not ride in or on buckets, forks or blades of heavy equipment.
Flash Floods Flash Floods: What to do: Know the area you are working in. Find higher ground. Wear personal floatation device. Do not cross rapid moving water. Do not wear turnout gear. • Rapid flooding of low-lying areas. • Flooding occurs in less than six hours.
Heat Illness Prevention • Drink lots of water (5 to 7 ounces every 15 -20 minutes). • Know the signs of heat stress/illness. • Work in the shade when possible. • Use cooling fans or take breaks. • Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting clothing. • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and heavy meals. • Take shelter and remove PPE when safe.
Heat Illnesses: Signs & Symptoms • Heat Stress/Cramps • Headache, thirst, profuse sweating, muscle aches and cramps. • Heat Exhaustion • Dizziness, confusion, nausea, pale-clammy skin, rapid/weak pulse. • Heat Stroke • Hot, flushed dry skin, body temp greater than 104°F, disoriented or unresponsive or unconscious.
Cold Stress Hypothermia Fist Aid Alert the supervisor and request medical assistance. Move the victim into a warm area. Remove wet clothing. Warm the core area first. After body temp increases, keep the patient warm and dry. If no pulse, begin CPR and request ALS treatment. • Early Symptoms • Shivering • Fatigue • Loss of coordination • Confusion and disorientation • Late Symptoms • No shivering • Blue skin • Dilated pupils • Slowed pulse and breathing • Loss of consciousness
Cold Stress Frost Bite Symptoms First Aid Get into a warm room as soon as possible. Unless absolutely necessary, do not walk on frostbitten feet or toes. Immerse the affected area in warm - not hot – water. Warm the affected area using body heat. Do not rub or massage the frostbitten area. Do not use a heating pad, heat lamp, or the heat of a stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming. • Reduced blood flow to hands and feet (fingers or toes can freeze) • Numbness • Tingling or stinging • Aching • Bluish or pail, waxy skin
Sunburn • Wear clothing to prevent overexposing skin. • Use protective eyewear. • Sunglasses, if used, must be ANSI approved for use as safety glasses. • Use sunscreen and lip balm. • Limit exposure time in sun.
Noise • Worksite is considered “noisy” if you have to shout to communicate within 3 feet. • Use hearing protection whenever around noisy equipment. • Saws, dozers, extrication tools, sirens, etc. • Hearing protection prevents temporary hearing loss so that you can hear victims.
Chemical Releases • Hurricane Katrina 2005 • A Chlorine tank found in downtown Gulfport, MS. • 78,000 barrels of oil released at two spills. • Diesel, gasoline, motor oil, chlorine, liquid oxygen, medical waste and corrosives encountered by crews. • 22,000 facilities in area had underground storage tanks. • Industrial and household hazardous chemicals were everywhere!
Symptoms: Eye, nose, throat, upper respiratory tract, and skin irritation; flu like symptoms; central nervous system depression, fatigue, loss of coordination, memory difficulties, sleeplessness, mental confusion. Chronic effects depend on the extent and the duration of exposure. Jobs affected Debris removal Site clean-up Protection Hazard specific as identified by supervisor or safety officer. Potential Chemical Exposures
Air Borne Dusts • Use only NIOSH-approved respirators. • Fit testing is required. • N-95 (or greater) respirators are typically suitable for most outdoor activities involving standard building materials. • If asbestos is present, use N,R,P-100 half masks. • If airborne contaminants are causing eye irritation, use full face APR with P100 OV/AG combination cartridge. • Replace filters or masks if breathing becomes difficult or chemical odors break through.