History of SportA chronology • Ancient Origins • Popular Recreation (15 – 17th century) • Public School Athleticism (18 / 19th century) • Rational Sport (19th century) • Development Of P.E. (20th century) • Amateur to Professional (20th century) • Commercialisation (1980’s to present day) • Americanisation (latter part of the 20th century)
The Development of Competitive Sport Festivals of Sport Festivalsof Sport • Ancient to combat sports; • Skills that were essential for survival such as those used to hunt and also protect were often the form of early competition. Hence the term “Combat sports”. • This was a means of both • developing skills • establishing those with superior skills • Festivals or other such tests of military skill were used to • encourage the development of skill and • help to maintain this natural social divide.
The Development of Competitive Sport Festivals of Sport Festivalsof Sport • The type of activities would therefore be; • Infrequent, • Localised, as a result of a lack of transport. • Requiring minimal equipment • Be basic in their rules and understanding • Socially divided, • Often be centred around the local inn or public house, • consequently the effects of alcohol would often encourage aggression and violence • Likely to cause damage to land and property
The Development of Competitive Sport Popular Recreations Festivals of Sport Popular Recreation • Sport exists within society. Therefore sport will reflect that society. • Cultural determinants of society: • Feudal, two tiered society – Courtly / Popular / aristocratic and peasant / worker. • Rural, agricultural society • Lack of Law and order • Tough Life - Low life expectancy
The Development of Competitive Sport Popular Recreations Festivals of Sport Popular Recreation • Activities during this period could be catorgarised under the following; • Field Sports • Blood Sports • Pedestrianism • Mob Games Refined Games • Festivals • Individual Contests
The Development of Competitive Sport Popular Recreations Opposition to Popular Recreation • Opposition existed to the participation by the lower class / peasants of popular recreation activities
The Development of Competitive Sport The Modern Olympic Games The Modern Olympic Games • Pierre de Coubertin is credited with the revival of the Olympic Games • Based on the same ideals that the public schools had used to foster the importance of team games in their institutions, the Olympics of the nineteen hundreds involved competition between amateur sportsmen And women who competed for the sheer enjoyment of participation. • “The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.” • Now they are a hugely commercial event, for both the athletes and host nation
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The Rationalisation and Codification of Sport; • Rationalisation refers to the bringing of ideas and games together to establish more central themes • Codification refers to the “coding” of sports, establishing rules that are recorded and accepted. • For codification to take place there must be a • Reason for it • Need for it • Process that occurs
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The move towards the Rationalisation of Sport • Industrial revolution • Urbanisation • Public school development • Oxbridge melting pot
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Public School Influence • Public schools were charged with developing their students and empowering them with the capacity to make the next generation of leaders. • Schools were a harsh environment, boys were bored, had no opportunity to let off steam, got involved in activities that lowered the standing of the school within the community • Thomas Arnold (Rugby School) perceived that physical games would facilitate letting off steam for the boys, and also would require similar qualities to those of good leaders
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Sport used as a tool for Social Control. • Arnold instructed the masters to invent games for the boys to play. • He set a side timetable time – Wednesday afternoons to break up the week. • Kept the boys out of trouble, confining them to the school grounds while providing positive recreation. • Was a means of settling arguments. • Provided educational benefits through team work / fair play ethos / sportsmanship / discipline etc. • Role of prefects was extended. • Promotes physical fitness and links to the mind / spiritual – healthy body healthy mind.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The development of the gentleman amateur, “its just not cricket!” • Attitude that prevailed was one that emphasised honesty, integrity, communication, mutual respect, leadership, bravery, adherence to rules, sportsmanship etc • supported the notion that sport was played for sports sake, winning was not the objective, deriving enjoyment was. • Gentleman amateur
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Societal influences upon Sport • England had traditionally been a rural agricultural country, • No requirement for an educated population, necessary skills were handed down. • Industrialisation caused a massive change to society
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The effect of the Industrial revolution. • Industrialisation caused a massive change to society • People need to learn new skills • Need for an educated workforce • Population shift to create new / bigger towns • Impact upon the types of recreation activities available
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Society facilitates Rationalisation Industrialisation; • Created the need for a different workforce with different pressures on time. • Created the need for factories and centralised populations, not as much work in the countryside. • Led to a need for a new educated middle class, (growth of new, 2nd tier of public schools) to run factories, operate banking and trade institutions • Led to the need for an educated workforce and a growth of state education / schools
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Society facilitates Rationalisation Urbanisation; • Need for centralised population to produce machinery / work was in the towns. • Less space, need for sport to move from mass participation to a more spectatored event. • Need for rules to limit playing size of participants. • Need for specific environments, initially to play but also to cater for those wanting to observe. • Increased centralised population would facilitate greater competition against a greater variety of opposition – would encourage regional leagues.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Society facilitates Rationalisation Working Conditions; • Initially very poor, need to work long hours resulting in less opportunity for sport and recreation type activities. • Created the need for a different type of workforce with different pressures on time. • New middle / liberal class began to exert pressure leading to a gradual increase in free time, • Saturday 1/2 day, • 10 hour Act, • Early Closing Movement
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Growing popularity of sport. Reasons for the growth in the popularity of sports; • Popularity of activities in the public schools • Students leaving school and continuing to play • Reduced working hours – more time for workers • Rationalisation and early codification brought games that could be played between groups • Dense populations facilitated leagues • Landowners seeing the commercial value through spectator revinue and patronage of teams.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The role of Oxbridge in the codification of sport. • Students leaving public schools attended one of the Oxbridge universities. • Each public school had created and played its own, invented, games. • So a need to establish an accepted form arose known as the Melting Pot.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport The National Governing Body • NGB’s were established to formally write the rules by which the sport should be played / codification. • They took control of the leagues, regular competitions and fixtures. • Took control of discipline providing referees and support in the form of punishments. • Developed a system of affiliation insisting that first clubs and then players became registered. • Responsible for selecting international managers and the representation of the given sport on an international stage.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Diffusion of sport. • New ideas were formalized by a combination of the university (Oxbridge) influence and that of the governing bodies that were being established. • Ex students spread the popularity of the sports through – returning as old boys to their previous schools, taking up jobs that involved travel e.g. in the army, commerce, foreign office. • Britain was an empire so had influence all over the world • Improved communication and travel enabled people to travel to participate in sports.
The Development of Competitive Sport The rationalisation of sport Diffusion of sport. • Sport was spread by traders and commerce, setting up clubs in ports etc. • The army encouraged sport to improve moral and for the training of the soldiers and so took the sports across the world. • Sport was spread via the education system with many British teachers teaching abroad. • The church also used sport as a means of social control and education both at home and with their missionaries. • Ex pats / emigrants formed clubs abroad. • Diplomats took sports with them to their countries of work. • Foreign students attending university in England and then returning home.
The Development of Competitive Sport 20th Century Sport The Period of Change. • Sport had undergone change; • games had been created, rules established, competitions and leagues created, spectator interest was developing • Sport was about to undergo a major change; • Amateur to Professional!
The Development of Competitive Sport 20th Century Sport Amateur to Professional • Period of the gentleman amateur was characterised by; • gentlemen of middle and upper classes playing sport in the spirit of “fair play” in order to maintain their own moral value and that of sport”. • Social divisions had always existed since the court and mob sports, these were still very evident i.e. cricket captains, roles that people adopted within teams, types of activities that people participated in, amount of time that different groups had to play sport.
The Development of Competitive Sport 20th Century Sport Amateur to Professional • Reasons for the change • Need for broken time payments • Spectators generating income • Income reflected by the success of the team • Now a need to win to generate more income • In order to win better players needed to be attracted to play for a team • Also players needed to practice and so didn’t have time to work / needed to be compensated and rewarded financialy.
The Development of Competitive Sport 21st Century Sport The Globalisation of Sport • Refers to the spread of sport across national and cultural borders. • Almost two distinct phases of the globalisation of sport occurred during the; • Nineteenth and • twentieth Centuries
The Development of Competitive Sport 21st Century Sport The Globalisation of Sport Nineteenth and early twentieth Century Globalisation • Sport was spread by traders and commerce, setting up clubs in ports etc. • The army encouraged sport to improve moral and for the training of the soldiers and so took the sports across the world. • Sport was spread via the education system with many British teachers teaching abroad. • The church also used sport as a means of social control and education both at home and with their missionaries. • Ex pats / emigrants formed clubs abroad. • Diplomats took sports with them to their countries of work. • Foreign students attending university in England and then returning home.
The Development of Competitive Sport 21st Century Sport The Globalisation of Sport Late Twentieth Century Globalisation • Invention and spread of televisions • Consequent growth in popularity of the • Olympics • FIFA World Cup • Rugby & Cricket World Cup’s • Tennis Grand Slams • Use of sport as a nation building tool / importance on international success. • Use of sport as a substitute for conflict – the cold war and USA vs Soviet Union • Increased commercialisation & Americanisation of sport
The Development of Competitive Sport 21st Century Sport Americanisation of Sport American society is largely based on the following; • Free Enterprise - capitalism • Meritocracy – American dream, - You CAN achieve. • Need to win – win at all costs. • Big, Bigger, Best.
The Development of Competitive Sport 21st Century Sport Americanisation of Sport Where Sport is seen as a Commodity and the market assumes control. The sale of TV rights becomes a major source of funding for sports and the teams, exceeding the revenue from paying spectators
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Deviance • Deviance within the context of sport refers to behaviour outside the norm, outside what is acceptable. • If boundaries change then so too does the division between deviant and non deviant behaviour.
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Sportsmanship • Sportsmanship refers to; • playing fair • following the rules of the game • respecting the judgment of referees and officials • treating opponents with respect • Identify current sports or sports people who could be described as ambassadors of the concept of sportsmanship.
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Gamesmanship Gamesmanship involves playing to win, it is not considered as cheating by those who are involved, rather as “bending the rules”. • Distracting opponents • Intimidating opponents and officials • Convincing officials that something has • taken place
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Performance Enhancing Drugs. Within the context of Sport PED’s refer to; Substances that are illegal and are taken with the design or intention of enhancing the performance of an athlete.
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Physiologicalbenefits of taking PED’s Performance enhancing drugs may be used for a number of physiological benefits reasons; • pain relief and management, • building muscle, • Stimulants, • reducing weight, • lowering stress, • improving oxygen carrying capacities • hiding other drugs (Masking agents).
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Physiologicalbenefits of taking PED’s Performance enhancing drugs may be used for a number of physiological benefits reasons; • pain relief and management, • building muscle, • Increase alertness • reducing weight, • lowering stress, • improving oxygen carrying capacities • hiding other drugs (Masking agents). • Anabolic steroids • Beta Blockers • EPO • Narcotic analgesics • Diuretics • Stimulants, • pethidine • Testosterone • rhEPO • Adrafinil • Epitestosterone • Acebutolol
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport WADA • The World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) was formed following the collapse of the Tour de France in 1998 • The IOC organised a World Conference on Doping which brought together all groups involved in the fight against doping. • The conference produced the Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport. • WADA was established in 1999 with the brief of promoting and coordinating the fight against doping in international sport.
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport What authority does WADA have? • The main strength behind WADA comes from the fact that; • it was set up under an IOC initiative • it had the support and participation of • intergovernmental organizations, • governments, • public authorities, • and other public and private bodies fighting against doping in sport.
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport How does WADA attempt to combat doping? WADA's primary activities against doping in sport are focused with; • Anti-doping coordination • Anti-doping development • Education • Athlete outreach • Out-of-competition testing
The Development of Competitive Sport Deviance in Sport Future Developments Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of the genes or genetic make up. Genetic engineering can be used to; • manipulate drugs to suit an athletes genetic composition • use genetic mapping to identify sporting talent • modify an athletes genetic composition to improve performance • modify the cells of a newly fertilised egg to produce 'super' athletes As yet genetic engineering can not be detected
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid The Concept of the Pyramid • The concept of the pyramid is that a wide base supports a narrower top. • Progression is made upwards. • At any level of the pyramid the • numbers are smaller than • below that level.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid Elite / 5% of the foundation level Competition Level Participation level Foundation / grass roots The Concept of the Pyramid • It is widely accepted that the top section of the pyramid is 5% of the bottom section. • Consequently in order to increase the numbers of people achieving elite levels we must first increase the numbers performing at foundation levels
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid Foundation / grass roots The foundation Level • Also known as the grass roots level, is mainly associated with introducing young children to sport and encouraging their learning the fundamental motor skills. • schemes such as TOP Sport and Active Sport have been used by sports councils to promote participation amongst children.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid Participation level The Participation Level • refers to sport undertaken primarily for fun and enjoyment, and often at basic levels of competence.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid Competition Level Competition Level • also known as the performance level, reflects a more structured form of competitive sport at club or county level, or indeed at an individual level for personal reasons.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid Elite Elite Level • applies to performers at the highest national and international levels.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid The role of Key UK Sports Agencies • There are three key agencies that oversee sport in the UK these are; • UK Sport, • Sport England (or Sport Scotland, Sports Council for Wales (Sport Cymru), Sports Council Northern Ireland) • Youth Sport Trust.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid UK Sport • UK Sport is charged with • “leading sport in the UK to world-class success. • This Primarily means • “working with appropriate partner sporting organisations to deliver medals at the Olympic and Paralympic Games” • Consequently UK Sport is focussed on the top of the pyramid, the elite.
Performance Pathways Sporting Pyramid UK Sport UK Sport has set itself 3 areas of focus in an attempt to help it achieve its ultimate aims. These are; 1. Delivering world class performance, 2. increasing worldwide impact, 3. ensuring world class standards.