Japan What I know about Japan What I want to learn about Japan What I learned about Japan Refer to your Notes Packet
Geography TTYN: What kind of land formation is Japan located on? Archipelago Montana – about the same size as Japan • Despite its size, Japan currently ranks 10th in population with an estimated 127M. Conversely, Montana ranks 38th with just under one million
Geography • TTYN • Considering what we have already learned about Japan, describe how geography and location affected AND currently impacts Japans growth. Think about possible advantages and disadvantages. Protection and Isolation • About the island of Japan • The affect of little farmland • Access to water • Most people settle in valleys and the coastal plains • Very little natural resources • Cultural Diffusion opportunities • The affects of the Ring of Fire
Geography • Very mountainous and offers very little farmland Mount Fuji; 3776 meters • Japan lacks key natural resources such as metals and minerals
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions • Clan Systems • Own chief or special god of goddess who viewed as the clan's original ancestor. • Ahead of their time: Even women were clan leaders. Yamato Clan • About 500 A.D., the Yamato clan establishes sufficient ascendancy for its chieftain to be seen as emperor • The Yamato claim as ancestor the Sun empress, who shines above all others in the heavens. Emperor Nintoku Tomb
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions TTYN: What is Shinto? • Shinto – • Indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Japan • Shinto has no founder • Has no official sacred scriptures • Has preserved its main beliefs and rituals throughout the ages. Shinto – “way of the gods” or “way of kami” One or more torii gates mark the approach and entrance to a shrine. They come in various colors and are made of various materials.
Before Japan was a Superpower: Early Traditions Shintocreation stories tell of the history and lives of the "Kami" (deities). Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands. Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. The Sun Goddess was one of their daughters. She is the ancestress of the Imperial Family and is regarded as the chief deity. Her descendants unified the country. Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth. He is famous for killing a great evil serpent. The Kami are the Shinto deities. The word "Kami" is generally translated "god" or "gods." However, the Kami bear little resemblance to the gods of monotheistic religions. Shrine of the Sun Goddess
Small Group Activity: Shinto Shinto Your Choice Refer to your Notes Packet
Small Group Activity: Shinto Shinto Christianity Believes in the Trinity (Father Son Spirit)... is ONE No apparent Holy Book Since it isn't really a religion, and it is a native belief in Japan, it is somewhat locked inside Japan. Attempts to spread its religion all around the world Afterlife Evil Uses a holy book, the Bible Believes in many natural spirits... and somewhat deify them Loving Christians should only believe in Christianity • Shintoists are usually Zen Buddhists as well Refer to your Notes Packet
Nara and Heian Japan 710-1185 • China Moves East (but with a twist) • 710, modeled after China, Nara • established as new capital of Japan • 784, capital moved to • Nagaoka • 794, finally moved • to Heian (Kyoto)
Nara and Heian Japan • Chinese Influence • Adoption of the higher civilization of China • Three stages • Japanese studied China – 7th century • Japanese implanted Chinese institutions – 8th century • Adapted institutions to meet Japanese needs – by 11th century - Japanized • Official embassies to Tang court began in 607 • Emperor Temmu began institutional changes • Used Chinese systems to consolidate power • “Heavenly emperor” replaces “great king”
Heian Period • The Heian period centered on the emperor and nobility, in particular the powerful Fujiwara family, It ended with the establishment of a military dictatorship. • 9th Century, the decline of the Tang dynasty in China • Japan greatly reduced contacts with China • Native culture began to grow • The kana phonetic writing systems were created.
Heian Period • Heian Buddhism • Religion - changed in important ways during the Heian period. • Earlier Nara Buddhism drew directly upon Chinese traditions and catered to elites. • New Texts from China brings new Buddhist sects • Tendai and Shingon • Available to the common man • Shinto continues to be valued • Shinto and Buddhist Temples often built in close proximity
Heian Period • Mid -tenth century local officials began to seize lands for themselves • Reduced central government income and control. • Imperial authority was diminished by powerful retired emperors and by regents of the Fujiwara family ruling on behalf of child emperors. • Warrior leaders with their samurai followers began to challenge for dominance. • Finally, in the Heike wars of 1180-85, the Minamoto family defeated the Taira. Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147-99) established the Shogunate with its distinctive warrior culture.
Heian Period Rise of the Samurai • During mid-Heian period • Nonofficial private bands of local warriors • System for next five centuries • Samurai – expensive • Horses, armor, weapons, training • Initial job – local order and tax collection • Confrontations between regional military coalitions • Conflict reaches Heian court in 1156
Small Group Activity When Why Heian Period Misc. What
Heian Period • The Heike Wars, 1180-85 • Minamoto family defeated the Taira. Minamoto no Yoritomo • Established the Shogunatewith its distinctive warrior culture. • The end of Golden Age and beginning of Feudalism
Decline of the Heian Period CAUSES Heian Period EFFECTS
Feudalism Do Now and TTYN: Describe Feudalism Feudalism – A government system (political, economical, and social), which originated in Europe in the Middle Ages with kings, nobles, knights, and peasants with no social mobility. Additionally, a system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.
Feudalism Japan developed a feudal system which had similarities to the European system. • The shogun (like the king) ruled the country through the daimyo (like the nobles), who were the heads of the samurai (like the knights). • Peasants farmed the land in exchange for protection by the samurai, who operated under a code of conduct known as Bushido (like chivalry). • Again, society was organized under a rigid class system with no social mobility. • The Tokugawa Shoguns maintained an ethnocentric policy toward the outside world. However, cultural influences from China did migrate to Japan down the Korean Peninsula.
Feudalism Seppuku, (Sape-puu-kuu) the Japanese formal language term for ritual suicide (Hara-kiri (Har-rah-kee-ree) is the common language term.), was an integral aspect of feudal Japan (1192-1868). It developed as an integral part of the code of bushido and the discipline of the samurai warrior class. Code of Bushido • Fidelity • Politeness • Virility • Simplicity Remembering China TTYN: Do you recall something similar to the Code of Bushido during our China Unit? Filial Piety
Feudal Period The samurai • The samurai were the warriors of pre-modern Japan. They later made up the ruling military class that eventually became the highest ranking social caste of the Edo Period (1603-1867). • Samurai employed a range of weapons such as bows and arrows, spears and guns, but their main weapon and symbol was the sword.
Feudal Period • Women • During the age of the samurai, the position of women declined steadily • From warriors to child bearer • No Chivalry here TTYN: What is Chivalry?
Feudalism The structure of feudal Japan
Feudal Period Zen Buddhism Zen Buddhism is a mixture of Indian Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. It began in China, spread to Korea and Japan, and became very popular in the West from the mid 20th century. Reinforces the Bushido values of mental and self-discipline Zen is something a person does. It's not a concept that can be described in words
Feudal Period Zen Buddhism • The essence of Zen Buddhism is that all human beings are Buddha, and that all they have to do is to discover that truth for themselves. • Zen sends us looking inside us for enlightenment. There's no need to search outside ourselves for the answers; we can find the answers in the same place that we found the questions.
Small Group Activity Clan System Heian Period Feudalism
Attack from Outsiders The Mongol Invasions of Japan 1274 & 1281 • 1274 Invasion • 500-900 Ships • 40,000 men • Driving wind and Heavy wind • Man to Man idea of fighting vs. a “mob” of Mongols • Mongols anchor ships further out into sea – 1/3 of fleet destroyed when facing a Typhoon • Mongols retreat • Japan spared..at least for a while
Attack from Outsiders The Mongol Invasions of Japan 1274 & 1281 • 1281 Invasion • 140K men • Samurai's better prepared; knew what to expect • No more Man vs. Man tactics; mass attack met with mass defense • Another Typhoon on the way • Kamikaze or “Devine Wind” once again saves Japan • The Mongols would not return; If it were not for two "miraculous" appearances of a mighty typhoon, a "Kamikaze" or "Divine Wind," • during those two massive Mongol invasions by Kublai Khan, Japan today might be part of China!
Era of Peace: Kamakura & Tokugawa Government • Tokugawa Period (Edo Period 1603-1867) • Hello Tokyo • More land distribution…see a trend? • TTYN: Think of another area of study where land distribution was a result of change in leadership. • Foreign Trade • Christianity Suppressed • Neo-Confucianism • Meiji Restoration • Open Door Policy – Japan’s version
Tokugawa Period • Welcomed Western Traders • Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English • Acquired western firearms • Built castles modeled after Europe • TTYN: What advantage might new weapons afford the Tokugawa Shoguns? • Allowed them to centralize power and impose order
The Global Age Do Now & TTYN Identify new technologies that made it possible for Europeans to make contact with Asian communities • Improvement in Cartography • Astrolabe • Caravel • Sextant • Ships
The Global Age • Early 17thCentury - Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese welcomed their new friends. • New technologies • New weapons • The spread of Christianity and Closed Door Policy • Reaction to Spain and the Philippines • Push-Pull Factor: Christianity or Buddhism • Japanese Christians and allegiance to a foreign power, the pope • By 1638, Japan closes the door and ports to Japan and for next 200 years Japan maintains a policy of strict isolation.
End of Isolation Do Now: Describe the tone and tenor of the following excerpt of letter written by President Fillmore. (refer to notes packet) “GREAT and Good Friend: I send you this public letter by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, an officer of the highest rank in the navy of the United States, and commander of the squadron now visiting your imperial majesty's dominions. I have directed Commodore Perry to assure your imperial majesty that I entertain the kindest feelings towards your majesty's person and government, and that I have no other object in sending him to Japan but to propose to your imperial majesty that the United States and Japan should live in friendship and have commercial intercourse with each other.”
End of Isolation • In 1853, Perry sent on a mission by President Millard Fillmore to establish trade with Japan • Perry leads a squadron of four ships into Tokyo Bay and presented representatives of the Japanese Emperor with the text of a proposed commercial and friendship treaty. • The Japanese rejected Perry’s demands and Perry withdrew. • 1854, Perry returned to Japan This time he appears with seven ships - four sailing ships, three steamers – and one thousand, six hundred men. TTYN: Prediction – what will happen next?
End of Isolation • After a standoff, Perry landed for peace and trade talks on March 8, 1854, and began to negotiate with the Japanese to establish a trade agreement. • On March 31, 1854, Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa on behalf of the United States, which established "permanent" friendship between the two countries. The treaty guaranteed that the Japanese would save shipwrecked Americans and provide fuel for American ships, but also opened the opportunity for trade between Japan and the United States. The signing of this treaty signaled the end of Japanese isolation.
End of Isolation and the reason(s) behind discovery Do Now & TTYN Why Asia? Describe why trading with Asia was so important • The reasons behind Europe’s overseas expansion during the Age of Discovery into four symptoms: • The acquisition of fame through discovery • The expansion of Christendom • The urgency for basic resources brought on by population pressure • The desire for wealth and economic power.
Japan What I know about Japan What I want to learn about Japan What I learned So far about Japan Refer to your Notes Packet
Modernization The Cotton Gin – 1793 The Steam Engine - 1775 The Spinning Jenny- 1769 The 1st Railway – 1825 Do Now & TTYN – what do the above listed inventions of the Industrial Revolution have in common with Japan in 1854? The United States wins: Extraterritoriality Rights and a “Most Favored Nation” clause
Modernization • 1853, Japan ends its centuries of isolation • TTYN: What advantages did Japan see for opening the door to Westerners? • A defense mechanism – the best way to defend against imperialism is to learn from the West. Result – transforms Japan into a modern industrial power.
Modernization • 1853, Japan ends its centuries of isolation • Tokugawa Shoguns control weakens • Isolation causes weakness • Shoguns control weakens • Corruption becomes commonplace • Societal discontent • Merchants – lost that taste of the good life when trading was going good = discontent • Old is New – Gov’t attempt to revert back to the “old” ways (farming over commerce)…doesn’t work.... • Enter the……..
Meiji Restoration • Looking Back • For 2 centuries Japan was in lockdown mode • Experienced a century of Civil Wars • By 1615 Feudalism hits its mark in Japan • 200 years of peace leads to a pressure cooker • Social Hierarchy turned upside down • New Economy provides the lower order (merchants) more power • Add this all up and Japan is about to explode • The Spark – U.S. and Commodore Perry • British, Russians, French, and Dutch quickly followed Perry into Japan
Meiji Restoration • More than trouble at home • News of the Opium War…Are we Next??? • Meiji Restoration • 1867, The Discontented (Daimyo and Samurai) led a revolt that unseated the shogun • Restored the emperor to power; a young emperor (15) • 1868-1912 • The Meiji Restoration – a turning point in Japanese history • TTYN: What does Meiji mean?
Meiji Restoration • Big Picture Goal • Strengthen Japan against the West • TTYN: Interpret the following quote and images • “A rich country, a strong military”
Meiji Restoration Big Group Activity Western ____________ was adopted which allowed the Japanese to fully ______________ in less than 50 years. By the end of the Meiji Restoration, the Japanese no longer feared that they would be _____________. Rather, they set out to practice imperialism themselves to obtain power and ________ __________. Japan was quickly emerging as a world-class power using western technology and methods while still maintaining its ___________ _________ values. technology industrialize imperialized Natural resources Traditional cultural This period was known as the??
Meiji Restoration • Reforms • Government • Strong central gov’t; German Model • Meiji Constitution • All citizens equal before the law, but… • Emperor help Autocratic power • One elected house and one appointed house…powers were limited; Suffrage was limited • All men required to serve in the military (same as Europe)
Meiji Restoration • Reforms • Economy • Encouraged Western Ideas and Methods • Banking System • Railroads • Improved Ports • Telegraph and postal system • Built factories and sold them to the rich and developed further • Captains of Industry created (Zaibatsu)
Meiji Restoration • Social • End of legal distinctions between classes • Schools and Universities established • Class distinctions existed (just like the West) • Literacy • Women still second-class citizens