Thinking and language notes (9nc) • What is cognition? • What is a schema? • What is a prototype? • How we solve problems? • What is convergent thinking? Divergent thk? • Obstacles to solving problems? • What are phonemes and morphemes? • What is grammar, semantics, syntax? • Skinner’s and Chomsky’s language development theories? • ? What are phonemes and morphemes? • What is grammar, semantics, syntax? • Skinner’s and Chomsky’s language development theories
Cognition • Another term for thinking, knowing and remembering Does the way we think really matter? Maybe by studying the way we think, we can eventually think better.
In order to think about the world, we form…….. Concepts • A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people. • Concepts are similar to Piaget’s idea of…. Schemas These animals all look different, but they fall under our concept of “dogs”.
We base our concepts on …. Prototypes • A mental image or best example of a category. • If a new object is similar to our prototype, we are better able to recognize it. If this was my prototype of a man; then what am I?
Algorithms • A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. What are the benefits and detriments of algorithms?
Heuristics • A rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Who would you trust to baby-sit your child? • A short cut (that can be prone to errors). Your answer is based on your heuristic of their appearances.
Insight • A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. • No real strategy involved
Confirmation Bias • A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. For example, if you believe that during a full moon there is an increase in admissions to the emergency room where you work, you will take notice of admissions during a full moon, but be inattentive to the moon when admissions occur during other nights of the month. (Fights during lunch?)
Match Problem Can you arrange these six matches into four equilateral triangles?
Match Problem Fixation • The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Mental Set • A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it has worked in the past. • May or may not be a good thing.
Functional Fixedness • The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions. What are some things I can do with this quarter (other than spend it)?
Barriers: Functional Fixedness Functional fixedness: unable to think of unusual or unique uses for objects
Divergent thinking, Convergent thinking • Divergent thinking is thinking outside the box. It means you are creative in coming up with solutions nobody else came up with. • Convergent thinking is more conforming but just as good. Sometimes the standard way is the best.
Representativeness Heuristic Below is Linda. She loves books and hates loud noises. Is Linda a librarian or a beautician? • A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they match our prototype. • Can cause us to ignore important information. Chances are, she is a beautician!!!
Availability Heuristic • Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in our memory. Although diseases kill many more people than accidents, it has been shown that people will judge accidents and diseases to be equally fatal. This is because accidents are more dramatic and are often written up in the paper or seen on the news on t.v., and are more available in memory than diseases. • If it comes to mind easily (maybe a vivid event) we presume it is common.
Overconfidence • The tendency to be more confident than correct. • To overestimate the accuracy of your beliefs and judgments. Considering “overconfidence” who you want to risk 1 million dollars on an audience poll?
Framing • The way an issued is posed. • It can have drastic effects on your decisions and judgments. How do you think framing played a part in the 2008 election?
Democrats support free speech The tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning. Sometimes making invalid conclusions valid or vice versa. Belief Bias • Dictators are not Democrats. • 3. Republicans are not Democrats. Conclusion: Republicans do not support free speech.
Belief Perseverance • Clinging to your initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. All Cowboy fans who still believe that this is their year are suffering from belief perseverance.
1.The belief that the probability of heads is higher after a long string of tails: • A. is rational and accurate • B. is an example of “gambler’s fallacy” • C. reflects the influence of the representatives heuristic. • D. b and c
2. A heuristic is: • A. a flash of insight • B. guiding principle or rule of thumb used in problem solving • C. a methodical procedure for trying all possible solutions to a problem. • D. a way of making a compensatory decision.
3. The more confident you are about your predictions of upcoming events in your life: • A. the more likely it is that your predictions are accurate • B. the less likely it is that your predictions are overconfident • C. the more likely it is that your predictions are overconfident • D. a and b
Language and Thought Its all about communication!!!
Language • Our spoken written or gestured words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning. Believe it or not, this communication is a form of language!!!
Phonemes • In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. • Chug has three phonemes, ch, u, g. How many phonemes does platypus have? Phones make sound.
Morphemes • In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning. • Can be a word or part of a word (prefix or suffix).
Grammar • A system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate and understand others.
Semantics • The set of rules by which we derive meaning in a language. • Adding ed at the end of words means past tense. The Chinese languages do not have expansive semantic rules. They usually have totally different symbols for different tenses.
Syntax • The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. • In English, adjectives come before nouns, but not in Spanish!! Is this the White House of the House White?
Which is the smallest unit of meaning in a language? • A. genome • B. morpheme • C. phoneme • D. phonogram
Research suggests that bilingualism has a negative effect on: • A. language development • B. cognitive development • C. metalinguistic awareness • D. none of the above The answer was B for the last question.
Language development • How many words do you think you know now? Probably around 80,000. After age 1 you average about 13 words a day.
Language Development • Babbling Stage: starting at 3-4 months, the infant makes spontaneous sounds. Not limited to the phonemes of the infant’s household language. • One-word stage: 1-2 years old, uses one word to communicate big meanings. • Two word stage: at age 2, uses two words to communicate meanings- called telegraphic speech.
Skinner • Skinner thought that we can explain language development through social learning theory (which is?). The young boy imitates his dad, then gets a reward.
ChomskyInborn Universal Grammar • We acquire language too quickly for it to be learned. • We have this “learning box” inside our heads that enable us to learn any human language.
Whorf’s Linguistic Relativity • The idea that language determines the way we think (not vive versa). • The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past.
Do people that speak more than one language think differently depending on their language at that time?
Thinking without Language • We can think in words. • But more often we think in mental pictures. In 1977, Reggie Jackson hit 3 HR’s against the Dodgers. He has stated that before each at bat, he visualizes crushing a home run. Do you think visualization helps?
Language is creative • Do you feel “starbucky” today?