Chapter 22 Vietnam
Chapter 22/Section 1 Moving Toward Conflict
During WWII Japanese took control of Vietnam & Indochina
Dec. 1945 France Returns!! September 1945 Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent!!!n
Vietnam Mappg. 733 • Color in your map labeling the following points: • N. & S. Vietnam -- Thailand • 17th Parallel -- Dien Bien Phu • Gulf of Tonkin -- Hanoi • Saigon -- My Lai • Laos -- Cambodia • Ho Chi Minh Trail -- China • South China Sea -- Gulf of Thailand
I. Moving Toward Conflict • 1941: Vietminh is formed to eliminate foreign rule in Vietnam • Led by Ho Chi Minh • Vietminh assist U.S. against the Japanese during WWII • Aug. 1945: Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam’s independence • Jan. 1946: French troops return to southern Vietnam • Ho Chi Minh rebels against the French from N. Vietnam
II. America Supports France in Vietnam • U.S. needs France to help oppose communism in Europe • “Containment” foreign policy applied • Fear of “Domino Theory” • President Truman provides $15 million in military & financial aid • By 1954 the U.S. is paying 80% of French war costs • No U.S. combat troops
II. America Supports France in Vietnam • 1954 French troops defeated at Dien Bien Phu • Geneva Accords (1954) peace settlement • Temporary division of Vietnam at the 17th parallel • Ho Chi Minh governs the North from Hanoi • Anti-communist regime governs the South from Saigon • France must withdraw its troops in S. Vietnam • 1956 democratic elections to unite country under one gov’t -- Pg. 8 --
Iraq Elections • With the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in the Iraq war, the Iraqi people are now able to conduct free democratic elections. In the upcoming elections though, the popular presidential candidate is anti-American and is thought to have close ties to dangerous terrorist organizations around the world. • Would you want your gov’t to step in? If so, how?
Review • What prompted the war between the Vietminh & the French? • What role did Ho Chi Minh play in Vietnamese independence? • List three reasons why the U.S. did not support Vietnamese independence in the 1940s & 1950s? • What were the terms of the Geneva Accords?
Steps To U.S. Involvement in Vietnam • September 1945 – After the Japanese leave Vietnam after WWII, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation. • Late 1945 – French troops move back to Vietnam and regain control of the cities and country’s southern half • 1950 – President Truman sends nearly $15 million in economic aid to France.
Steps To U.S. Involvement in Vietnam • 1953 – President Eisenhower continues to supply the French. Fearful of the Domino Theory. • May 1954 – Vietminh defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu • July 1954 – The Geneva Accords peace agreement settles the conflict between France and the Vietminh.
III. United States Steps Into Vietnam • U.S. seeks to prevent a communist regime in Vietnam • Establishes a pro-American gov’t in S. Vietnam • Led by Ngo Dinh Diem • President Eisenhower provides U.S. military aid & training • Diem blocks 1956 democratic elections -- Pg. 9 --
III. United States Steps Into Vietnam • Diem leads a corrupt & oppressive gov’t • Institutes harsh policies toward the country’s Buddhists (pg. 734)
Anti-communist Devout catholic, restricted Buddhist practices Corrupt & suppressed opposition Prevented 1956 democratic elections Supported by the U.S. Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam)
Communist Redistributed land to the peasants Brutal & repressive Supported by the Soviet Union & China Popular support in North Vietnam HO Chi Minh (North Vietnam)
IV. Ngo Dinh Diem Seeks U.S. Aid • 1958 civil war wages between communists & non-communists in South Vietnam • (NLF) – National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam communist rebel group in S. Vietnam • “aka”…Vietcong • Oppose Ngo Dinh Diem & U.S. support • Supported by Ho Chi Minh • Ho Chi Minh Trail
IV. Ngo Dinh Diem Seeks U.S. Aid • President Kennedy sends additional weapons & military advisers • 1963: 16,000 U.S. troops in S. Vietnam • By 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem’s popularity has plummeted • Corruption & religious persecution • Lack of land reform • Strategic hamlet program
Elimination Plot • In order to obtain a more popular leader to unite the South Vietnamese against communism, President Kennedy agreed to allow the CIA to provide a group of South Vietnamese generals with $40,000 to carry out a coup to eliminate Ngo Dinh Diem. • With the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diem, the Vietnamese generals assassinated him.
IV. Ngo Dinh Diem Seeks U.S. Aid • Nov. 1, 1963 U.S. supported military coup topples Diem’s gov’t
Review • Why did the United States support Ngo Dinh Diem in canceling the 1956 elections? • How did U.S. involvement & support of Ngo Dinh Diem increase internal conflict in Vietnam? • How are the Vietminh & the Vietcong the same yet different? • Identify how President Kennedy’s handling of Vietnam compared to previous presidents before him.
Iraq Policy • It has now been three years and many Americans are starting to question America’s involvement in Iraq. Some gov’t officials cite the Iraq situation to now be a civil war and a losing cause for America to continue to be involved in. Other gov’t officials warn that pulling American troops out would doom Iraq to terrorism and would ruin American prestige making us appear weak and incapable winning the war on terrorism. • What do you do? Do you retreat or escalate?
DESOTO patrol boats were specially fitted out to detect opponent's radio and radar signals - particularly those signals in response to provocative or aggressive actions or patrol routes. They were engaged in intercepting and recording enemy radio broadcasts for military intelligence use.
V. President Johnson Expands the Conflict (pgs. 735 – 737) • Aug. 7 1964 • Feb. 1965 • March 1965 • June 1965 • Dec. 1965 • Dec. 1967
Vietnam Chapter 22/Section 2 Questions Q2 – Q5
Why did U.S. forces have difficulty fighting the Vietcong? • Difficult discerning friend from foe b/c the enemy lived amidst the population. • Elaborate tunnels help Vietcong to withstand airstrikes & launch surprise attacks. • Terrain was laced w/ booby traps & land mines.
How did the U.S. view of the fight for Vietnam differ from the Vietcong? • The United States viewed the war strictly as a military struggle; the Vietcong saw it as a battle for their very existence.
Factors that led to low U.S. troop morale… • Frustrations of Guerrilla warfare, the brutal jungle conditions, and the failure to make substantial headway against the enemy. • Soldiers turned to alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs. • A few soldiers murder their own officers. (fragging)
What led to growing concern in America about the Vietnam War? • Large military spending taking away from social programs. • Increased taxes were used to pay for the war. • Gov’t issuing false reports about the progress being made in Vietnam. • People begin to question the wisdom & morality of the war.
VI. U.S. FRUSTRATIONS IN VIETNAM • BOMBING 1. 2. 3. • GEOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. • SOLDIERS 1. 2. 3.
VI. U.S. FRUSTRATIONS IN VIETNAM • BOMBING 1. Bombing campaign strengthened the Vietnamese will to resist 2. Failed to destroy the nations weapon supplies & factories 3. Failed to destroy the flow of soldiers into S. Vietnam 4. Unable to destroy the Ho Chi Minh trail
VI. U.S. FRUSTRATIONS IN VIETNAM • GEOGRAPHY 1. Covered jungles & rice paddies make troop mvmt. difficult 2. Jungle provides natural cover for sneak attacks & ambushes 3. Thick vegetation hides booby traps & mines 4. Dense fog hinders bombing & troop entry & extraction
VI. U.S. FRUSTRATIONS IN VIETNAM • SOLDIERS 1. Unable to identify the enemy from the civilian population 2. Uncertain as to the cause they are fighting for 3. Lack of visible progress hurts troop morale (desertion, fragging) 4. Draft is unfair to the lower class