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  1. Blogs Travel e22

  2. Toblogor not toblog! • A blog is a crossbetweentwowords:web + log = web blog ===> Blog • A blogis - a singlewebpagedesignedtoauto-archivetheolderentriessothatonlythenewestentriesappearuponopenning.- A shorthand term that means “Web log”—is an online, chronological collection of personal commentary and links. • A "blog" is similar to an online journal. It is largely text-based, so it's easy to update and maintain—even if you have no experience running a Web site. • Any type of information can be presented on a blog, from stories about a family vacation to in-depth commentary on world politics. In addition, most blogs allow visitors to post responses to blog articles or entries and leave feedback for the person running the site, known as a "blogger". • Overall, a blog is a fast, easy and fun way to establish an online presence. Travel e22

  3. A blog (web log) is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first). U ntil2009 blogs were usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject. More recently "multi-author blogs" (MABs) have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors and professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks, interest groups and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into societal newstreams. Wikipedia

  4. Easy to create and use from anywhere with an Internet connection, blogs are a form of Internet publishing that has become an established communications tool. • Blogging has evolved from its origins as a medium for the online publication of personal diaries to a respected vehicle for editorials on specific topics. • Today, blogs represent an alternative to mainstream media publications. The personal perspectives presented on blogs often lead to discourse between bloggers, and many blog circles generate a strong sense of community • Blogs are showing up in venues ranging from entertainment and commerce to news and politics. Many blogs are the reflections of a single author; others focus on a particular topic and feature the voices of several authors. • Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries; others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company.

  5. Blogging for Business • Poised between media, blogs can be as nuanced and well-sourced as traditional journalism, but they have the immediacy of talk radio. • Blogs do two things that Online Web magazines simply cannot: • First off, blogs are personal. Almost all of them are inspiredtotallyby the temper of their writer. This personal touch is much more in tune with our current sensibility than were the opinionated magazines and newspapers. Peopleknow that behind the curtain are fallible writers and editors who are no more inherently trustworthy than a lone blogger who has earned a reader's respect. • The second thing blogs do is to invoke and seize the means ofproduction of regularNewspapers. Travel e22

  6. Blogging for Business • Think about it for a minute. Why not build an online presence with your daily musings and then sell your first book through print-on-demand technology direct from your Web site? • Why should established writers go to newspapers and magazines to get an essay published, when they can simply write it themselves, convert it into a .pdf file, and charge a few bucks per download? Just as magazine and newspaper editors are slinking off into the sunset, so too might all the agents and editors and publishers in the book market. • This, at least, is the idea: a publishing revolution more profound than anything since the printing press. Blogger could be to words what Napster was to music - except this time, it'll really work Travel e22

  7. Blogging for Business • BlogsarefullysearchablethroughGoogleandallothersearchengines, makingthemtheleastexpensivemeans of promotionandpublicityavailableto internet users of anygeneration. • 7 yearsago, ifyou had typed “blog” intoGooglesearchbox, youwouldhavefoundlessthan50 hits. • I justgoogled “blog” yesterdaynight. Result is about - hits... 2007 - 1.600.000.000hits... 2008 - 2.790.000.000 hits... 2009 • -9.940.000.000 hits... 2013!.. • “Travel blogs” : • -103,000,000 hits... 2013!.. Travel e22

  8. Blogging for Business • As of 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. • On October 13, 2012, there were around 77 million Tumblrand 56.6 million WordPressblogs in existence worldwide. • According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. Travel e22

  9. Howdoes it work? Howdoes it work? • A blog can be thought of as an online journal, and maintaining ablog is as simple as using an online e-mail program. • Bloggers enterposts into a blogging application, add formatting or hyperlinks, andsave the post. • The application adds the entry to the blog, making the content available online and alerting users who have sub-scribed to that blog’s content. • Entries can include text, hyperlinks,images, or multimedia. • A typical blog has a main page and nothing else. On the main page, there is a set of entries. • Each entry is a little text blurb that may contain embedded links out to other sites, news stories, etc. • When the author adds a new entry, it goes at the top, pushing all the older entries down. Blog also mighthavea right sidebar that contains additional permanent links to other sites and stories. The author might update the sidebar weekly or monthly.

  10. Howdoes it work? • Even though blogs can be completely free-form, many blogs have a focus. For example, if a blogger is interested in technology, the blogger might go to the Consumer Electronics Show and post entries of the things he/she sees there. • There are people who use their blogs simply as a scrapbook -- a form of online memory. Even if no one else ever looks at it, it is still useful to the author because the blog is a searchable electronic medium that the author can access with a Web browser anywhere in the world.

  11. Whytoblog? • Blogs increase pagehits to your homepage or any page you want to lead links. Increase awareness and web presence. Basically, for free.. • Blogs are interactive. Don’t have to wait for email responses. • User can include his/her own profile intotheblog profile section. • Readers can searchthearchives of thepastposts. • AllowReadersto post comments. • As blogs become a staple of online culture, more and more companies are using them to humanize their organizations and build personal relationships with their customers. Travel e22

  12. Blogging in the Enterprise • To keep blogs from consuming marketing resources with little measurable payoff, firms must willingly invest the resources — and take the risks — to realize the long-term benefits that blogs offer in thought leadership and customer intimacy. • Some Stats (in USA) : • 81% of U.S. online consumers trust information and advice from blogs • 91% of B2B marketers use content marketing Travel e22

  13. Breakdown of B2B Content Marketing Tactics in Use: 87% of B2B content marketers use social media (other than blogs) 83% of B2B content marketers use articles on their website 78% of B2B content marketers use eNewsletters 77% of B2B content marketers use blogs 71% of B2B content marketers use case studies 70% of B2B content marketers use videos 70% of B2B content marketers use articles on other websites

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  15. Blogging in the Enterprise • Internal Blogging Uses and Benefits • Knowledge-sharing (63%) • Internal communications (44%) • Replacement of email (39%) • Project management (30%) • Personal knowledge management (23%) • Event logging (23%) • Team management (20%) • External Blogging Uses and Benefits • Improved brand recognition (78%) • A vehicle for customer feedback (66%). • PR & marketing (61%) • Improve search engine position (58%). • Regular customer and partner communications (35%) • Generate income (20%) Travel e22

  16. BLOGS • Blogs as part of SocialMedia Marketing ToolforNationalDMOsBasics of a Blogfor a National DMO (or a Corporation) : • Find what excites your customers and then build your community Around that “point of enthusiasm.” • Humanize Your Brand With Blogs: Build a blog that • emphasizes the human side of your business :A CASE STUDY: MARIOTT BLOG • Marriott blogs on topics about which he is passionate, including • the hotel’s history as a family business, current events, the travel • industry and politics. • That passion reminds people that Marriott is in fact a real person—a human face behind the brand. • Marriott routinely responds to individual comments on the blog as • well, whether readers offer suggestions or complaints about service they’ve received Travel e22

  17. BLOGS • The blog has yielded tremendous dividends, with individual posts routinely receiving hundreds of comments and bookings directly from the blog totaLling $4 million in incremental revenue since its inception, according to Marriott. Mr. Marriott commentedon this himself in his own blog as well as on MSNBC t • A blog can represent the corporate voice in its purest form, in this case the voice of one man who is committed to communicating in an unfiltered way with his customers. Travel e22

  18. BLOGS • To drive traffic to your own site, leave comments in other • relevant communities highlighting your expertise andAuthenticity • Give context to the content. When you learn more about the • author, you learn more about the content. Grouping content by • social attributes garnered by user profiles gives contextto thatinformation. • When users on your site have a great conversation or talk up your brand, show off a little.Since people made those comments in a public forum, you’re free to use those commentsany way you want. Use them as quotes in your direct mail or e-mail campaigns, and even should be a part of your main Web site ! Travel e22

  19. BLOGS • Don’t give up! Buildingan audience takes time. • it’s important not to give up when it seems like participation • is low. Write content youbelieve is relevant to people, and • you’ll continue to get picked up by search engines when • surfers look for that content. • But don’t panic if you don’t see lots of comments. People • will still be reading, and reading is the first step on theparticipation ladder. Travel e22

  20. Blogging in the Enterprise • Challenges & BarriersforCorporateBloggers • Poor understanding of the benefits blogging can deliver to the organization. (58%) • Maintaining enthusiasm for the blog project (42%) • Adoption within the organization (36%) • Fear of losing control of the company message (22%) • Lessmanagementsupport (18%), • Establishing editorial policy (14%) • Dealing with inappropriate comments or content (14%) Travel e22

  21. Some Blogging Vocab • Blogger : Anyone publishes a blog, whether it is for business or pleasure • Blogosphere :The collective community of all blogs is known as the blogosphere. Since all blogs are on the internet by definition, they may be seen as interconnected and socially networked, through blogrolls, comments, linkbacks (refbacks, trackbacks or pingbacks) and backlinks. Discussions "in the blogosphere" are occasionally used by the media as a gauge of public opinion on various issues. • RSS feeds: Rich Site Syndication (also known as Real Simple Syndication). Technology that allows readers to receive notification of updated blogs through their RSS reader on the homepage. (uses XML) Travel e22

  22. Some Blogging Vocab • Blog search engines : Several blog search engines are used to search blog contents, such as Bloglines, BlogScope, and Technorati. Technorati, which is among the most popular blog search engines, provides current information on both popular searches and tags used to categorize blog postings. The research community is working on going beyond simple keyword search, by inventing new ways to navigate through huge amounts of information present in the blogosphere, as demonstrated by projects like BlogScope. • analyze blog posts to determine what web pages are being discussed or cited most often on the World Wide Web, or • allow users to vote for links to web pages that they find of interest. • Eg:, Slashdot, Reddit, Technorati Travel e22

  23. US Blog Stats Blogger is the leading blog site in the U.S., with 46MM unique monthly users. B2B companies with blogs generate 67% more leads per month on average than non-blogging firms 61% of U.S. online consumers have made a purchase based on recommendations from a blog The percentage of small businesses plan to increase their social presence in 2013? 70% on Facebook 50% on Google Plus 58% on Twitter 49% on LinkedIn 72% on Blogs (WordPress, Tumblr, Blogger, etc)

  24. Some Blogging • Technorati ranking :Blogs are given rankings by Technorati based on the number of incoming links and Alexa Internet based on the Web hits of Alexa Toolbar users. In August 2006, Technorati found that the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress XuJinglei. Chinese media Xinhua reported that this blog received more than 50 million page views, claiming it to be the most popular blog in the world. • Technorati rated BoingBoingto • be the most-read group-written blog Travel e22

  25. Some Blogging • AydinSenkutFounder and Managing Director Travel e22

  26. Blogs increase pagehits? • Links in between blogs are the transit system of Blogosphere.Links can be Trackbacks or backlinks or pings. • Webcrawlers slither from blog to blog through those links between blogs. • Themorelinksbetweenblogsareclicked, thehigher rate of traffictothatwebsite, pushinguptheblogitselftohigherlevels of placement in searchengines. • Thehigherlevels of placement in searchresults, betterchancestogettingclikedbyuser.. Travel e22

  27. Types of Blogs Personal Blogs • The personal blog, an ongoing diary or commentary by an individual, is the traditional, most common blog. Personal bloggers usually take pride in their blog posts, even if their blog is never read. Blogs often become more than a way to just communicate; they become a way to reflect on life, or works of art. Blogging can have a sentimental quality. • Some sites, such as Twitter, allow bloggers to share thoughts and feelings instantaneously with friends and family, and are much faster than emailing or writing. Corporate and organizational blogs • A blog can be for business purposes. Blogs used internally to enhance the communication and culture in a corporation or externally for marketing, branding or public relations purposes are called corporate blogs. • Similar blogs for clubs and societies are called club blogs, group blogs, or by similar names; typical use is to inform members and other interested parties of club and member activities. Travel e22

  28. Types of Blogs By genuine type • Some blogs focus on a particular subject, such as political blogs, travel blogs (also known as travelogs), house blogs, fashion blogs, project blogs, education blogs, niche blogs, classical music blogs, quizzing blogs and legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs) or dreamlogs. Two common types of genre blogs are art blogs and music blogs. A blog featuring discussions especially about home and family is not uncommonly called a mom blog. By media type • A blog comprising videos is called a vlog, one comprising links is called a linklog, a site containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketchblog or one comprising photos is called a photoblog. Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media types are called tumblelogs. Blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned are called typecast or typecast blogs • A rare type of blog hosted on the Gopher Protocol is known as a Phlog. Travel e22

  29. Business Blogs are forever.. • Create a businessorcompanyblog • Do not delete it • Determinethescopeandtheme of yourblog. • tellaboutyourhotel, travelagency, etc. • Establishfrequency • Readersmustknowwhenyoupublishednewmaterial. • Drawtraffictoyourblog • uselots of links in yourcomments. • Use RSS NewsFeeds Travel e22

  30. BlogsDo’s • Create a platform • Be honest; avoidduplicatecontent • Writeyouranswersurgentlyandclear & short • Use a nice template, • Updateregularly • Keyword Rich Content - identify a few keywords for your article that you’re hoping will get indexed highly by Google. Don’t pick too many • Themed sites - you are more likely to rank well if you have a substantial amount of pages on a similar theme. E.g.: a niche topic blog will probably rank higher than a general one that covers many topics. Build a blog with over 200 pages of content on the same theme and you’ll increase your chances of ranking well as SEs will see you as an authority on the topic • Submit to Search Engines - submit your URL to be included in the index. (a quicker and more effective way is to get linked to by a site already indexed by the search engine) Travel e22

  31. BlogsDo’s • Site Design - Search Engines like well laid out, well coded and easily to navigate sites • Interlink your Site - The way Search Engines index your blog is to send little robot crawlers to your site to track what you’ve written and follow the links. Make it easier for them to get around your blog by using internal linking wisely. It is recommended that you provide some sort of Site Map that means every page on your blog is just a link or two away from every other one • Outbound Links - Relevant outbound links enhance your site’s ranking in search engines.However, linking to sites outside your own blog does mean you end up sending traffic away from your blog so you need to count the cost of such a strategy • One topic per post & Write optimal length postsThe more tightly focused the theme of a page the better when Search Engines come to rank it; try to keep posts at least 250 words

  32. BlogsDont’s • Don’twriteabouttopicsout of yourleague.. • Don’texpectimmediateresults • Don’t let your blog get old and cold • Don’t post toomanypersonalinformation (yourhomeaddress, etc.) • Avoidduplicatecotent

  33. Low Cost Airlines (E-Airlines) Travel e22

  34. e-Airlines • Airlines have been using ICTs since 1960s. • Consequently, airlines moved fast towards Internet Protocol systems. • 20 % of all world airlines already established their webbased sales system, • 90% of airline companies have been reported to have started the migration to IPs. • Today airlines see their own websites, as the most important distribution channels • CRSs from 1970s, offered airlines a tool to manage their inventory internally, and also allowed distributors and partners to access information about availability and prices, schedules and routes • CRSs allowed airlines to compete fiercely, by adapting their schedules and fares according to demand. Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  35. e-Airlines • 1980s, the CRSs developed into a more comprehensive Global Distribution Systems (GDSs) • Scheduled Carriers = AirFrance, United Airlines, THY, etc • They primarily targeted Business Travelers for eTickets, hence they facilitated online tickets. • Developed interfaces with consumers over the web, but still keep their old traditional systems as alternative distribution channels (CRSs) • No Frills (Low Cost) = EasyJet, Jet Blue, etc. • All sold on the web with e-ticket; more often control, minimized distribution costs. • Charter = Britannia Airways, etc. • Not on the GDS. Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  36. e-Airlines • According to 2002 data, 2.8 % of all airlines revenue goes to ICT. • Strategic Functions of e-Airlines • Bussiness unit management. • Route Planning • Monitor competitors • Dynamic Pricing & yield management • Online Branding and communucation of principles to users • Partnerships and alliences Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  37. e-Airlines • Interface with consumers • Management of inventory & booking trhough GDSs and Internet • Reservation management, e-ticketing • Route Planning • Online Branding and communucation of principles to users • Dynamic Pricing & yield management • Special offers, promotions • eProcurement and management of supplies • Customer profiles, easy CRM, manage Loyalty clubs Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  38. e-Airlines • Crew Management Systems • Assist in creation of maintanence and duty schedules • Assess Crew planning & control • Comprehensive Crew databases to help contact with crew and crew control • Operations Control Systems • Enable airline to plan their operations and to analyse all incoming information • Automatic calculation and distribution of flight plans • Aircraft maintanence, etc. • Online catalogue system for ordering supplies • Various extranets.. Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  39. Travel e22

  40. e-Airlines Hot NewsaboutEairlines & Low-costAirlines • “US sneezes, rest of theworldcatchescold” • Crisishittingall of us.. • Airpassengersfalldrammatically.. • Increasedoilcostsmakeallairtransportationsuffer.. • 1% oilincreasereducestravelby 0.12 % • -2% to -3% decrease in allWorld Travel is expected.. • Business & Corporate Travel getstheworstdecline.. • Vacationsarestillneeded; shortertripsclosetohometrips • Conference & Exhibitionindustrywillfall… • WebcastsandTeleconferenceswillincrease Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  41. e-Airlines Hot NewsaboutEairlines & Low-costAirlines • 2004 to 2008 LowCostairlinestripledtheirseatcapacity. • RyanAircarriesaroud 3,5 millionpassengersincomingtoGermany • 113 LowCostAirlinesoperate in Europe.. • 60% of allairtraffictoPoland is byLowCostAirlines… • LowCostAirlines stand for 40% of allEuropeanAir Travel… • Lufthansacloseddownmanyroutesduetolowcostcompetition • RyanAiropened 20 moreroutes in 2007-2008 • However… Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  42. e-Airlines Hot NewsaboutEairlines & Low-costAirlines • Lufthansafightbackwithadvertisements, alreadygot 10% seatcapacitybackfromLowCostAirlines.. (Lufthansamakes 1,5 billion Euro profiteveryyear, therforetheyhavecapitaltofightback..) • Duetocrisis in 2009, LufthansamighttakeoverAustrian.. • Duetohighoilprices, LowCostAirlineswill no longer be lowcost in 2009-2010. Therefore, reducedseatcapacity.. • Many of themwillgoout of business.. • Keyforairlineindustry is; peoplewanttoflyone-stop; same as airlineswanttoflyone-stop forcostreasons.. • That’showLowcostcarriersmadetheirwaysupby far.. Travel e22 Dimitrios BUHALIS - Information Technology for strategic tourism management

  43. Forecastingfuture… / The Boeing Company, Seattle Travel e22

  44. Forecasting future… / The Boeing Company, Seattle Travel e22

  45. Airlines All Charts aretakenfrom : Current Market Outlook 2008-2027 / The Boeing Company, Seattle 2008 Travel e22

  46. AirlinesWorldwideTrafficDistribution Travel e22

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