Re-imagining and reshaping the city Michael Bradford University of Manchester AQA sponsored lecture GA Manchester 2012
‘Auda-city’ to dare you to think of positive and negative words ending in city Positive Authenti city, perspica city domesti city, ethni city feli city, iconi city histori city, saga city preco city, publi city recipro city, vera city viva city, synchroni city Negative fero city, dupli city atro city, compli city incapa city, inauthenti city, menda city, sala city, toxi city
Positive and Negative views BEETHAM TOWER HILTON HOTEL
AQA specification: specifically relating to • Option 4. World Cities: urban decline and regeneration within urban areas • Option 6. Contemporary Conflicts and Challenges: Conflict over the use of a local resource (e.g. land, buildings, space)
outline • The state of play pre-1988 • How the city has been re-imagined and reshaped since 1988 CMDC, recovery from IRA Bomb (1996) • Issues and problems with that re-imagining the neo-liberal city • The neo-liberal city continues beyond financial crisis. • The need for new thinking and subsequent reshaping
In a nutshell: Beetham Tower • Icon of change • High rise (completed 2006) • Power, confidence in the future • Leisure, tourism and residences • Business, high income, prestige, private investment • Part of geographical extension of city centre
Arndale Town Hall New offices View from Beetham Tower towards city centre
Spinningfields Great Northern Warehouse St John’s Gardens 1970s Wimpey housing
The city • Where many live, work and play. • People’s context: identity, heritage • The central city especially significant for: iconic buildings, feelings of belonging, pride, social cohesion
types of crisis of cities 60s onwards • economic • social • political • built • place disinvestment, closure, long term unemployment, deindustrialisation net out-migration, riots, high crime legitimation, fiscal dereliction, decay identity - what are large cities for?
types of intervention • economic • social: human capital social capital • political • built • consumption: leisure and tourism; spectacle • skills, welfare to work; community involvement (NDC) • new forms of governance (UDCs), deregulation, co-ordination (URCos) • property-led, urban design
The re-imagining late 80s • Bring back some residents to the city centre • Attract private investment again in housing (restore a market), offices, leisure and tourism and retail. • Compete amongst global cities (market) • In short, city to go from mainly oriented to production to mainly oriented to consumption, especially individually based.
National Government input • Central Manchester Development Corporation • A later UDC 1988-96. • ‘Property-led regeneration’ • Market the property and market the city • Use public monies to lever in private investment • Built-form change and environmental improvement • Underlying Idea: ‘trickle down’ from rich to poor
Central Manchester Development Corporation 1988-1996 • Goals: extend the city centre both functionally and geographically • Leisure (pubs, clubs, hotels) • Housing • Offices • Retailing • Industry • Environment • So if they succeeded they would change the type and area of land use for the city centre.
Leisure: pubs Duke’s 92, Rochdale Canal, Castlefield
Malmaison Hotel, the old Joshua Hoyle (Dept Store) building, diagonally opposite Piccadilly Station
Housing Conversion. Affordable housing Whitworth Corridor. e.g.India House. Housing Assoc.
New build by water: intended to be mixed land use Piccadilly Village, behind Piccadilly Station. Early housing development on the Ashton Canal.
Views from apartments varied Piccadilly Village  and occupied warehouse knitwear
Castle Quay a mixed development, Castlefield. An eg of enveloping.
first non-subsidised housing in city centre Slate Wharf new build, Castlefield
Offices: conversion Eastgate offices, Castlefield. Roman wall alignment of entrance.
Castlefield: Eastgate and Bass offices Bridgewater Canal
Conflict I. CMDC v British Gas New offices: British Council Costed at top of the market west of Oxford Rd Station
Old British Council Offices 2007 Now City Council Offices but ….
Barbirolli Square, 21st century offices, Bridgewater Hall Accountancy and Legal firms move out from old core New build, extending city centre
Environment: canals and towpaths Bridgewater Canal, Castlefield
CMDC outcomes: successful on own terms • Housing and people back in city centre – mostly richer people, varied ages; a market. • Much hotel, clubs and office development (leisure, tourism and commerce) • Environmental success with canal towpaths • Not successful for retail or hi-tech industry (but some creative industry) • Marketing of property and place > Olympic • bids >City Pride and Commonwealth Games • 24 hour city – the young
Conflict II Deansgate Victorian terrace, now includes city centre estate agents
Conservation v Development (built env.) • E.g. The Great Northern Warehouse • Conserve elements of ‘First Industrial City’ or develop for now? • Civic Society set up to oppose initial plans • Other changes to old buildings: egPrintworks, the Triangle (Corn Exchange); • other warehouses (loss of cheap space for crafts) • under viaducts of railway lines.
Great Northern Warehouse (2007) Note multi-storey car park
1996 IRA Bomb • What and where? No loss of life. • Structural damage. Loss of many retail outlets • But an opportunity • New design of part of the older city centre • Re-focused on imminent competition of Trafford Centre • But independents replaced by multiples; discount stores by up-market retailing.
Now The location of the IRA bomb. now
The late 1970s Arndale: ‘the biggest gentlemen’s loo in Europe’ Bill Bryson
The new Arndale Shops opening onto street rather than having a wall of tiling.
Urban Design Exchange Square: some controlled public space. The Triangle (Corn Exchange ) discount to up-market retailing.
Leisure and tourism new Exchange Square The Shambles: the inn has been moved twice.
Overall outcomes by 2001 • Plaudits for the City: exemplar of regeneration • 14,000 people living in the city centre • Although lost Olympic bids, acquired the Commonwealth Games for 2002 – catalyst for regeneration in East Manchester • Attracting more investment: Harvey Nics, Spinningfields, and areas beyond the Inner Ring Road eg New Islington Harvey Nichols
New Islington, Manchester Methodist Housing Association Since 2001 East of Inner Ring Road
Pomona (Castlefield): more apartments West of Inner Ring Road
No 1 Deansgate Apartments within Old Core View along Market St. near Exchange Square
Howard Jacobson from this week’s Newsweek ‘Hotels, clubs, apartment blocks now, the old mills and warehouses have made the change well from temples of ceaseless industriousness to palaces of pleasure’ From production to consumption
BUT • Property based – CMDC no link to Ancoats (east); City Challenge in Hulme (south) or to Training and Enterprise Council (TEC). People? • Too easy for City Council to be seduced by its own marketing • Increased inequalities in Manchester • 47% (118) of its areal units are amongst the 10% most deprived in the country 2010 • Only Liverpool (51% 148) and Middlesbrough (47% 41) have greater proportion .