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Re-imagining and reshaping the city

Re-imagining and reshaping the city

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Re-imagining and reshaping the city

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  1. Re-imagining and reshaping the city Michael Bradford University of Manchester AQA sponsored lecture GA Manchester 2012

  2. ‘Auda-city’ to dare you to think of positive and negative words ending in city Positive Authenti city, perspica city domesti city, ethni city feli city, iconi city histori city, saga city preco city, publi city recipro city, vera city viva city, synchroni city Negative fero city, dupli city atro city, compli city incapa city, inauthenti city, menda city, sala city, toxi city

  3. Positive and Negative views BEETHAM TOWER HILTON HOTEL

  4. AQA specification: specifically relating to • Option 4. World Cities: urban decline and regeneration within urban areas • Option 6. Contemporary Conflicts and Challenges: Conflict over the use of a local resource (e.g. land, buildings, space)

  5. outline • The state of play pre-1988 • How the city has been re-imagined and reshaped since 1988 CMDC, recovery from IRA Bomb (1996) • Issues and problems with that re-imagining the neo-liberal city • The neo-liberal city continues beyond financial crisis. • The need for new thinking and subsequent reshaping

  6. In a nutshell: Beetham Tower • Icon of change • High rise (completed 2006) • Power, confidence in the future • Leisure, tourism and residences • Business, high income, prestige, private investment • Part of geographical extension of city centre

  7. Arndale Town Hall New offices View from Beetham Tower towards city centre

  8. Spinningfields Great Northern Warehouse St John’s Gardens 1970s Wimpey housing

  9. The city • Where many live, work and play. • People’s context: identity, heritage • The central city especially significant for: iconic buildings, feelings of belonging, pride, social cohesion

  10. types of crisis of cities 60s onwards • economic • social • political • built • place disinvestment, closure, long term unemployment, deindustrialisation net out-migration, riots, high crime legitimation, fiscal dereliction, decay identity - what are large cities for?

  11. types of intervention • economic • social: human capital social capital • political • built • consumption: leisure and tourism; spectacle • skills, welfare to work; community involvement (NDC) • new forms of governance (UDCs), deregulation, co-ordination (URCos) • property-led, urban design

  12. The re-imagining late 80s • Bring back some residents to the city centre • Attract private investment again in housing (restore a market), offices, leisure and tourism and retail. • Compete amongst global cities (market) • In short, city to go from mainly oriented to production to mainly oriented to consumption, especially individually based.

  13. National Government input • Central Manchester Development Corporation • A later UDC 1988-96. • ‘Property-led regeneration’ • Market the property and market the city • Use public monies to lever in private investment • Built-form change and environmental improvement • Underlying Idea: ‘trickle down’ from rich to poor

  14. Central Manchester Development Corporation 1988-1996 • Goals: extend the city centre both functionally and geographically • Leisure (pubs, clubs, hotels) • Housing • Offices • Retailing • Industry • Environment • So if they succeeded they would change the type and area of land use for the city centre.

  15. Leisure: pubs Duke’s 92, Rochdale Canal, Castlefield

  16. Clubs

  17. Malmaison Hotel, the old Joshua Hoyle (Dept Store) building, diagonally opposite Piccadilly Station

  18. Housing Conversion. Affordable housing Whitworth Corridor. e.g.India House. Housing Assoc.

  19. New build by water: intended to be mixed land use Piccadilly Village, behind Piccadilly Station. Early housing development on the Ashton Canal.

  20. Views from apartments varied Piccadilly Village [1990] and occupied warehouse knitwear

  21. Castle Quay a mixed development, Castlefield. An eg of enveloping.

  22. Castle Quay from road: transforming a gateway

  23. first non-subsidised housing in city centre Slate Wharf new build, Castlefield

  24. Offices: conversion Eastgate offices, Castlefield. Roman wall alignment of entrance.

  25. Castlefield: Eastgate and Bass offices Bridgewater Canal

  26. Conflict I. CMDC v British Gas New offices: British Council Costed at top of the market west of Oxford Rd Station

  27. Old British Council Offices 2007 Now City Council Offices but ….

  28. Barbirolli Square, 21st century offices, Bridgewater Hall Accountancy and Legal firms move out from old core New build, extending city centre

  29. Environment: canals and towpaths Bridgewater Canal, Castlefield

  30. CMDC outcomes: successful on own terms • Housing and people back in city centre – mostly richer people, varied ages; a market. • Much hotel, clubs and office development (leisure, tourism and commerce) • Environmental success with canal towpaths • Not successful for retail or hi-tech industry (but some creative industry) • Marketing of property and place > Olympic • bids >City Pride and Commonwealth Games • 24 hour city – the young

  31. Conflict II: development v conservation

  32. Conflict II Deansgate Victorian terrace, now includes city centre estate agents

  33. Conservation v Development (built env.) • E.g. The Great Northern Warehouse • Conserve elements of ‘First Industrial City’ or develop for now? • Civic Society set up to oppose initial plans • Other changes to old buildings: egPrintworks, the Triangle (Corn Exchange); • other warehouses (loss of cheap space for crafts) • under viaducts of railway lines.

  34. Great Northern Warehouse (2007) Note multi-storey car park

  35. 1996 IRA Bomb • What and where? No loss of life. • Structural damage. Loss of many retail outlets • But an opportunity • New design of part of the older city centre • Re-focused on imminent competition of Trafford Centre • But independents replaced by multiples; discount stores by up-market retailing.

  36. Now The location of the IRA bomb. now

  37. The late 1970s Arndale: ‘the biggest gentlemen’s loo in Europe’ Bill Bryson

  38. The new Arndale Shops opening onto street rather than having a wall of tiling.

  39. Urban Design Exchange Square: some controlled public space. The Triangle (Corn Exchange ) discount to up-market retailing.

  40. Leisure and tourism new Exchange Square The Shambles: the inn has been moved twice.

  41. Overall outcomes by 2001 • Plaudits for the City: exemplar of regeneration • 14,000 people living in the city centre • Although lost Olympic bids, acquired the Commonwealth Games for 2002 – catalyst for regeneration in East Manchester • Attracting more investment: Harvey Nics, Spinningfields, and areas beyond the Inner Ring Road eg New Islington Harvey Nichols

  42. Spinningfields: retail, offices and apartments

  43. New Islington, Manchester Methodist Housing Association Since 2001 East of Inner Ring Road

  44. Pomona (Castlefield): more apartments West of Inner Ring Road

  45. Developments: within, beyond the Inner Ring Road

  46. No 1 Deansgate Apartments within Old Core View along Market St. near Exchange Square

  47. Howard Jacobson from this week’s Newsweek ‘Hotels, clubs, apartment blocks now, the old mills and warehouses have made the change well from temples of ceaseless industriousness to palaces of pleasure’ From production to consumption

  48. BUT • Property based – CMDC no link to Ancoats (east); City Challenge in Hulme (south) or to Training and Enterprise Council (TEC). People? • Too easy for City Council to be seduced by its own marketing • Increased inequalities in Manchester • 47% (118) of its areal units are amongst the 10% most deprived in the country 2010 • Only Liverpool (51% 148) and Middlesbrough (47% 41) have greater proportion .