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Unit6. Cultural information. Audiovisual supplement. Watch the video and answer the following questions. Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 1. 1. Do you know where the soldiers were in the video? 2. What do you feel when you watch the movies about wars?.
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Cultural information Audiovisual supplement Watch the video and answer the following questions. Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 1 1. Do you know where the soldiers were in the video? 2. What do you feel when you watch the movies about wars? The soldiers were on the beach of Normandy in northwest of France. It was the invasion of Normandy during Operation Overlord in World War II. Open.
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 2
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement Soldier A: Sergeant: Captain: Sergeant: Soldier B: Captain: Soldier C: Captain: Soldier C: Captain: I said, “What the hell do we do now, sir?” Captain Miller! Captain Miller! Sergeant Horvath! Move your men off the beach! Go! Okay, you guys, get on my ass! Follow me! Sir, what’s the rallying point? Anywhere but here! ... The seawall! Move up to the seawall! Sir, I’m staying! Clear this beach, make way for the others! This is all we got between us and the Almighty. Every inch of this beach has been pre-sighted! You stay here, you’re dead men! Video Script1
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement 1. Quote Cultural information1 The real and lasting victories are those of peace, and not of war. — Ralph Waldo Emerson
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement 2. World War II Cultural information1 World War II, or the Second World War, was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945 which involved most of the world’s nations, including all of the great powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilized. In a state of “total war”, the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant action against civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history, and it has been
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement estimated that it resulted in fifty million to over seventy million fatalities. The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. China and Japan were already at war by this date, whereas other countries that were not initially involved joined the war later in response to events such as the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Japanese attacks on the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and on British overseas colonies, which triggered declarations of war on Japan by the United States, the British Commonwealth, and the Netherlands. Cultural information2
Cultural information Audiovisual supplement The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. World War II left the political alignment and social structure of the world significantly changed. While the United Nations was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next forty-six years. Meanwhile, the acceptance of the principle of self-determination accelerated decolonization movements in Asia and Africa, while Western Europe began moving toward economic recovery and increased political integration. Cultural information2
Ration口粮 The Field Ration, Type K was adopted for use in 1942. It was developed at the request of the U.S. Army Air Force and first used by paratroopers伞兵 (parachute 跳伞). As with the C ration, the components of the K rations evolved over the course of the war to offer greater variety while still maintaining the need for compact size and balanced nutrition. While the K rats were designed for only a few days‘ use under assault袭击 conditions, the demands of war meant that soldiers often ate them for days or weeks on end, and boredom and complaints naturally ensued. At the height of the war in 1944, over 105 million of these rations were produced.
The packaging changed to a set of distinctive color designs (the "Morale K Ration") to make it easier for soldiers to quickly select the "right" meal: brown for breakfast; green for supper; and blue for dinner.
Breakfast UnitCanned meat productBiscuitsCompressed cereal bar压缩干粮Powdered coffeeFruit barChewing gumSugar tabletsFour cigarettesWater-purification tabletsCan openerWooden spoon
Dinner Unit Canned cheese productBiscuitsA candy barChewing gumPowdered beverage饮料粉 • Granulated sugar砂糖Salt tablets盐片CigarettesMatchesCan opener Wooden spoon
Supper UnitCanned meat productBiscuitsBouillon powder肉汤粉 • CandyChewing gumPowdered coffeeGranulated sugarCigarettesCan openerToilet paperWooden spoon
Text analysis Structural analysis Structural analysis 3 1. What do the three entries of the diary have in common? The three entries have two thematic topics in common, one being the horrible scenes of the war that the writer witnessed, and the other being the writer’s strong love for, and emotional attachment to his family. These two themes recur in all three entries.
Text analysis Structural analysis 2. What particular situation or context does each entry have? And how is this particular situation related to the common thematic topics in these three entries? Structural analysis 1 In the first entry, the writer describes how he felt and feared under German air raids. This led him to speculate about the difficulties and problems his family might be undergoing back in America. In the second entry, the writer describes his reflections on the justification of wars. The sight of a teenage girl and the grim condition in a small European town made him recall his dear daughters and family. The third entry was dated on Christmas Eve and about the approaching death. The writer’s only wish was that someone could return the diary to his family.
Text analysis Structural analysis Structural analysis 1 Diary writing is a unique type of writing in that it is not structured in a pre-planned way as are other types of writing. In a diary entry, the writer’s pen simply follows the flow of his thoughts. In other words, a piece of diary writing is usually “structured” by the author’s free associations between the present, the past, and the future, or between the reality and the imagination, or between the actual happenings and the author’s feelings.
Detailed reading The Diary of the Unknown Soldier This story is dedicated to all of the unknown soldiers who died while trying to protect the lives of the innocent. Detailed reading1 NOVEMBER 24, 1943 1 It has been almost six months since I last saw American soil, my family, or my home. My heart aches every moment because everywhere I look I see piles of rubble where houses used to stand and lifeless bodies that once moved around with the joy of life inside them. It is as if I have stared into death’s eyes and seen its hatred, its coldness. If it would have been some strangers’ corpses that I had seen I might have taken it lighter. But these lifeless heaps are, or used to be, my friends and colleagues.
Detailed reading They all came here with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win. What fools they were! Couldn’t those men see that what they received was a one-way ticket to death, couldn’t they have opened their eyes! Of course, I was like them, but I have changed my views since the last D-Day, when our regiment was assigned to protect London. Detailed reading2 2 Today was rainy and cold, just like any other, when, out of the blue, German fighter planes bombarded our small, makeshift camp. All I could hear were the sounds of bombs exploding, crippling those people in their way. I was suddenly knocked into a trench and able to be undetected by the planes circling overhead. I was lucky.
Detailed reading 3 When I came to, the Axis planes had gone and the few survivors that were left began scooping up bodies. I suffered minor head injuries, but the rest of my platoon wasn’t so fortunate. All I can say to describe the aftermath of the explosions is that it was a sea of blood. Right about this time thoughts of suicide entered my head, but I decided that I must go on. I must go on living this nightmare, if not for myself or my country, then for my family back home. I want my children to have a father. My family has been sending me mail, but I have received only a few letters so far. Oh, how I wish I could see my darling daughters! They are experiencing tough times too, with the food shortage problems and all. I hope the garden that they planted is growing. My thoughts drift to my wife now. She is so dear to me that I can’t stop thinking about her. Detailed reading3
Detailed reading 4 My job now is plane spotting. It is a civilian’s task, but there are no more civilians left to do it. I must end this entry now because I am too tired to go on writing. All I ask is that I be alive when this ends. Although I’m not so sure I’ll get my wish. Detailed reading4 NOVEMBER 29, 1943 1 I do not remember why I ever came here. Why does war have to be the way problems are solved? War just creates more problems; something every sensible person knows. I guess that means people like Hitler aren’t sensible. Now my K-rations are running low. My joints are frozen stiff and my ammunition has been used up. Word has it that the Axis powers are sending troops to our location within the month.
Detailed reading My situation is grim and the odds of winning, or even surviving, seem unlikely. More blood has been shed and my body simply cannot take it. When I eat, sleep, and fight I have to stare at cold, lifeless soldiers that look like they were never alive. If I return home I vow to keep these soldiers’ memories alive by telling their families they died bravely in an effort to save their country from turmoil. While that might not provide much to help them cope with their loss, it will make thechildren feel like their fathers made a difference. Detailed reading5
Detailed reading 2 A few days ago my ragtag group of soldiers journeyed to a small European town that had been untouched by warfare. Still, the townspeople took all of the proper war-time precautions. One night, as I performed my routine watch, I passed a young girl of no more than twelve or thirteen, who was walking home. I couldn’t help thinking about my two daughters when I saw her. I fell apart inside and broke into tears, wondering yet again if I would ever see my family. I would give anything to see them, even if it was for five minutes! I am not a man made for war, nor am I an adventurous person. I do not even remember my reason for joining in this madness! I guess I thought it was something that had to be done. Detailed reading6
Detailed reading A saying I once heard strikes a painful note in my head, “Even one war is too many.”The person who said it had a valid point.Never have I been so enraged at my fellow man before.Humans do err, but that is no excuse for ending innocent lives and destroying whole countries!No one has that right. How can we be so selfish and ignorant as to not care about each other! This thought makes me sicker than when I am staring at heaps of bodies strewn over the tattered soil. Detailed reading7
Detailed reading DECEMBER 24, 1943 1 I think we have a spy in our regiment because the nightmare has surfaced again. Our “secret” location is being invaded by Nazi troops as I write this down. I have hidden myself in a small trench, my last hope for surviving. I wish, with all my soul, that I could be home now, in my own bed, waiting for Christmas morning to come. The children would be tucked in their beds, and my wife and I would be soundly asleep in our room. I am struggling to calm myself down, but my face is covered in dirt and sweat, and my head is pounding like mad.I am so close to death that I can actually feel its fiery breath engulfing me. To help keep me from panicking I am thinking of my daughters’ faces as they open their Detailed reading8
Detailed reading presents on Christmas Day. The faces are all aglow with delight. I will always remember their faces, wait — I hear footsteps coming in my direction. My rifle is useless since there are no shells in it. If this is my last entry then please, whoever finds this, return it to my family. Oh my God! I can see from my hiding spot that a Nazi soldier is inspecting the trench. It is only a matter of time before he finds me. I have one last question before I die. Why? Detailed reading9
Detailed reading Almost nine and a half years after the last diary entry was written a British infantryman found the small journal as he was clearing away wreckage at the doomed battle site. The name of the author is today a mystery and it was not mentioned in the diary. Only the initial R was found in the bottom left-hand corner of the first page. The man, who is dubbed “The Unknown Soldier ,” was never found although we assume he is dead at this time. Detailed reading10
Detailed reading Detailed reading--Quesion Why did the unknown soldier’s heart ache? Because everywhere around him he saw piles of rubbles where houses used to stand and those who had once lived happily inside the houses now lost their lives, vigor and hope.
Detailed reading Detailed reading--Quesion Why did the author say he was lucky at the end of the paragraph? He was knocked into a trench in the air raid and thereby avoided being detected by the enemy plane circling overhead, so he thought he was a lucky survivor.
Detailed reading Detailed reading--Quesion 1. How did the author describe the aftermath of the explosion? The author said in his diary “it was a sea of blood” after the explosions. 2. What thought came into his mind even though he survived the bombing? What made him give up the thought? Thoughts of suicide entered his head, but the strong desire to go back home to see his darling daughters and beloved wife made him give up this idea, he decided that he must go on living this nightmare.
Detailed reading Detailed reading4--Quesion Was the author in a critical situation when he wrote his second diary entry? Yes. His K-rations were running low. His joints were frozen stiff and his ammunition has been used up. However, there was news that the Axis powers were sending troops to his location in a month.
Detailed reading Detailed reading--Quesion How did the sight of a young girl in the small European town stir the author’s feelings? The author passed a girl of no more than twelve or thirteen when he was performing his routine watch. He couldn’t help thinking about his two daughters. He felt heart-broken and broke into tears, wondering if he would return home and see his family. He would give anything to see them, even if it was for five minutes.
Detailed reading Detailed reading8--Quesion What was the author’s earnest wish when he was faced with his approaching death? He wished, with all his heart and soul, that he could be home, getting together with his wife and children, waiting for Christmas morning to come, enjoying the peace at home and the happiness of reunion.
Detailed reading Detailed reading1– soil soil n.(literary) a country e.g. It was the first time we had set foot on foreign soil. Synonym: land
Detailed reading assign vt.give sb. a task to do Detailed reading– assign1 e.g. The job of producing a development program was assigned to the junior minister. The authorities assigned him an important task. Derivation: assignment n. Comparison: appoint, assign appoint to choose someone officially for a job or responsibility assign to give a particular job or piece of work to someone
Detailed reading Exercise: Fill in each blank with the correct form of appoint or assign. 1. He’s just been (as) director of the publishing division. 2. An important task was to him. Detailed reading– assign2 appointed ____________ assigned __________
Detailed reading Detailed reading– They all came here … They all came here with an air of confidence and eagerness, ready to win. Paraphrase: Full of confidence and eagerness, the soldiers came here and were ready to win the battle. Translation: 他们都是充满自信和热情来到这里的，并且做好了打赢的准备。
Detailed reading out of theblue all of a sudden Detailed reading– out of the e.g. The job had been offered to her out of the blue. One day, out of the blue, she announced that she was leaving. Synonym: unexpectedly
Detailed reading circle vi. / vt. move all the way round Detailed reading– circle1 e.g. The birds seemed enormous, and there were so many of them, circling overhead. The plane circled the airport before landing. 飞机着陆之前在机场上空盘旋。 Comparison: encircle, circle encircleto surround something, forming a circle around it circle to move in a circle, often around something
Detailed reading Detailed reading– circle2 Exercise: Fill in each blank with the correct form of circle or encircle. 1. The plane for an hour before receiving permission to land. 2. The house is by a high fence. circled ________ encircled __________
Detailed reading Today was rainy and cold, just like any other, when, out of the blue, German fighter planes bombarded our small, makeshift camp. Detailed reading–2Today was rainy … Paraphrase: That day, it was rainy and chilly as usual, when suddenly German fighter planes attacked our small, makeshift camp. Translation: 今天和往常一样下着雨，天气寒冷。德军战斗机突然轰炸了我们临时搭建的小营地。
Detailed reading Detailed reading–2 I was suddenly … I was suddenly knocked into a trench and able to be undetected by the planes circling overhead. Paraphrase: Suddenly, I was hit and thrown into a trench; the situation enabled me to escape the detecting of the planes which were flying around my head. Translation: 突然我被抛进一条壕沟，头顶上盘旋的飞机才没有发现我。
Detailed reading scoop up to lift something or someone with your hands or arms in a quick movement Detailed reading3–scoop up e.g. I scooped up my belongings into my handbag. He scooped up some soil from the flower bed. Synonym: lift, take up