旅游景点范例之一：北京故宫A Brief Introduction to the Imperial Palace • 【概述】 • 本文选自1998年中国世界语出版社出版的《故宫向导图》 （A Sketch Map of the Imperial Palace）。与其它详细的景点介绍不同，导游图上的文字一般比较简短，旨在概括地介绍景点的历史、现状及其重要的文物价值，增强他们的游览兴趣。原文很好地浓缩了故宫的精华，语言朴实，空间和时间逻辑鲜明，是一篇典型的旅游文体文章。翻译成英文，总体风格要与原文一致，应注意故宫里主要建筑物名称的翻译，使用音译加意译的方法，因为这些名称里面包含着独特的中华文化的基本精神，如“天人合一”的理念。原文中有大量描写建筑布局和造型的文字，不可拘泥，要灵活处理，重在实现原文的信息功能。
故宫旧称紫禁城，位于北京城的中心，为明、清两代的皇宫，是中国现存最大最完整的古代木构建筑群。始建于明永乐四年（1406年），历时十四年才竣工。迄今已有500余年历史，有24位皇帝相继在此登基执政。故宫旧称紫禁城，位于北京城的中心，为明、清两代的皇宫，是中国现存最大最完整的古代木构建筑群。始建于明永乐四年（1406年），历时十四年才竣工。迄今已有500余年历史，有24位皇帝相继在此登基执政。 The Imperial Palace, previously called the Forbidden City and now popularly known as the Palace Museum, is located in the center of Beijing. Once the palace of the Ming and Qing dynasties, it is the largest and most complete ancient wooden complex extant in China today. Building work began in 1406, the fourth year of the Ming emperor Yongle’s reign. The complex was finished 14 years later. During its time as Imperial Palace a succession of 24 emperors sat on the throne and administered state affairs.
被称为“殿宇之海”的故宫平面为长方形，占地72万平方米，有殿宇楼阁9000多间，建筑面积达15万平方米。宫墙长达3公里，四面各一门，四角均矗立造型奇特的角楼，被称为“殿宇之海”的故宫平面为长方形，占地72万平方米，有殿宇楼阁9000多间，建筑面积达15万平方米。宫墙长达3公里，四面各一门，四角均矗立造型奇特的角楼， The rectangular palace complex occupies an area of 720,000 square meters and consists of 9000 rooms, with a floor area of 150,000 square meters. The wall surrounding the Imperial Palace is three kilometers long, with a gate on all four sides and a uniquely shaped watchtower standing at each of the four corners.
墙外环绕宽52米的护城河，构成森严壁垒的城堡。宫殿建筑有外朝、内廷之分。外朝以太和殿、中和殿、保和殿为中心，文华、武英两殿为侧翼。 Around the outside of the wall runs the 52-meter-wide moat. The palace grounds are divided into two main sections, the Front Palace and the Inner Palace. In the center of the Front Palace stand Taihedian (Hall of Supreme Harmony), Zhonghedian (Hall of Complete Harmony) and Baohedian (Hall of Preserving Harmony), with Wenhuadian (Hall of Literary Glory) and Wuyingdian (Hall of Military Prowess) as the wings.
内廷分中、东、西三路，中路为乾清宫、交泰殿、坤宁宫，其后是御花园；中路两侧为东、西六宫；东六宫向南至奉先殿、斋宫和诚肃殿；西六宫往南为养心殿。 The Inner Palace consists of three parts, the Middle Road, the Eastern Road and the Western Road. The Middle Road consists of Qianqinggong (Hall of Heavenly Purity), Jiaotandian (Hall of Prosperity) and Kunninggong (Hall of Earthly Peace), behind which is the Imperial Garden. On the Eastern Road stand the Six Eastern Palaces and on the Western Road the Six Western Palaces. To the south of the Eastern Road is Fengxiandian (Hall of Ancestral Worship), Zhaigong (Hall of Abstinence) and Chengsudian (Hall of Sincerity and Solemnity). To the south of the Western Road is Yangxindian (Hall of Mental Cultivation).
内廷外围东有宁寿宫，西有慈宁宫、寿康宫、英华殿等。整体布局严谨有序，体现了“前朝后寝”的格局。 To the east of the Inner Palace is Ningshougong (Palace of Peaceful Longevity), and to the west Cininggong (Hall of Benevolent Peace), Shoukanggong (Hall of Longevity and Health) and Yinghuadian (Hall of Flowers). The layout of the Imperial Palace is well organized, a fine example of standard palace construction with the administrative offices at the fore and living quarters at the rear.
内廷另有三座花园：御花园、宁寿宫（乾隆）花园、慈宁宫花园。1911年辛亥革命爆发，末代皇帝溥仪下台后仍居内廷直至1924年被逐出宫。内廷另有三座花园：御花园、宁寿宫（乾隆）花园、慈宁宫花园。1911年辛亥革命爆发，末代皇帝溥仪下台后仍居内廷直至1924年被逐出宫。 There are three gardens in the Inner Palace: the Imperial Garden, the Ningshou Garden (Garden of Peaceful Longevity) and the Cining Garden (Garden of Benevolent Peace). The 1911 Revolution overthrew the Qing Dynasty, but the last emperor, Puyi, remained in the Inner Palace till he was driven out in 1924.
故宫建筑气势雄伟、豪华壮丽，是中国古建筑艺术的精华，其规格之巨和独具特色的建筑艺术享誉世界。在这里保存的大量珍贵文物，稀世绝宝，是研究明、清两代历史和历代艺术的重要物证。 The grand and magnificent Imperial Palace embodies the essence of ancient Chinese architecture, thus it enjoys worldwide fame for its scale and unique architectural detailing. A large number of rare and precious relics are preserved here, which are of great significance to the study of Ming and Qing history and the arts of past dynasties.
1925年改名为故宫博物院，它是世界上最大的博物馆之一。1961年被公布为全国重点文物保护单位。1987年为联合国教科文组织列入“世界人类文化遗产”。1925年改名为故宫博物院，它是世界上最大的博物馆之一。1961年被公布为全国重点文物保护单位。1987年为联合国教科文组织列入“世界人类文化遗产”。 The imperial Palace changed its name to the Palace Museum in 1925 and now is one of the largest historical museums in the world. It was listed as state-level historical site in 1961 and part of world cultural heritage by the United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1987.
新中国成立后人民政府拨巨款进行保护和修缮，现已成为久负盛名的旅游景观。新中国成立后人民政府拨巨款进行保护和修缮，现已成为久负盛名的旅游景观。 Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, significant funds have been allocated for the protection and maintenance of the Imperial Palace, which remains the most famous sight in Beijing.
太和殿、中和殿、保和殿是外朝的主体建筑。三座大殿建在工字形三层汉白玉石的高大台基上，四周廊庑环绕，气势磅礴，为故宫中最壮观的建筑群。 Taihedian (Hall of Supreme Harmony), Zhonghedian (Hall of Complete Harmony) and Baohedian (Hall of Preserving Harmony) are the major buildings in the Front Palace. They were erected on the I-shaped terraces made of three layers of white marble, each layer bounded by a low balustrade. These buildings, of an imposing appearance, are the most stately architectural complex in the Imperial Palace.
主殿太和殿俗称金銮殿，其规模、造型、装饰和陈设均采用了显示皇权至高无上的最高规格，也是中国现存最大的木构殿宇。殿内沥粉金漆柱，蟠龙衔珠藻井，梁枋遍饰和玺彩画，还有金漆雕龙宝座，富丽堂皇。 Taihedian, the main hall popularly known as Jinluandian (Hall of the Imperial Throne), boasts the best either in scale, design, decoration or furnishing, demonstrating in itself the sublime authority of the emperor. It is the largest wooden hall extant in China today. Its pillars are painted with gold powder, its caisson ceiling is decorated with dragons holding pearls in their mouths, and its beams are covered with color pictures. But the most eye-catching in the hall is the throne which is covered with gold and carved with dragons.
皇帝即位、诞辰以及出兵征伐等重大庆典和仪式在此举行。中和殿是皇帝举行大典前小憩或演习礼仪的地方。 Here emperors performed grand ceremonies and celebrated grand events such as ascending the throne, celebrating birthdays and issuing decrees of war. Zhonghedian was the room for taking rests before ceremonies and the place for rehearsing rites.
保和殿是皇帝册封皇后、太子及宴请王公大臣的场所，清乾隆后期曾在此殿试。保和殿后有宫内最大云龙雕石，总长16.75米，宽3.07米，重约250吨。 Baohedian was where emperors conferred titles and gave banquets. It was also used as a place for palace examination during Qing emperor Qianlong’s reign. Behind Baohedian there is the largest Cloud-Dragon Stone Sculpture in the Imperial Palace, which is 16.75 meters long, 3.07 meters wide and weighs about 250 tons.
外朝东侧的文华殿曾是经筵及讲学场所，文渊阁为收藏《四库全书》之地。外朝东侧的文华殿曾是经筵及讲学场所，文渊阁为收藏《四库全书》之地。 To the east of the Three Front Halls is Wenhuadian (Hall of Literary Glory) and Wenyuange (Hall of Literary Erudition). Wenhuadian was where the sutras were expounded and lectures given, and Wenyuange was a library where the famous Complete Library of the Four Branches of Literature was kept.
西侧武英殿为明末农民起义军领袖李自成登极称帝和处理政务之处，清朝为修书印书的地方。西侧武英殿为明末农民起义军领袖李自成登极称帝和处理政务之处，清朝为修书印书的地方。 To the west of the Three Front Halls is Wuyingdian (Hall of Military Prowess), where Li Zicheng, leader of the peasant uprising in the late Ming Dynasty, claimed to be the emperor and administered state affairs after he overtook Beijing. During the Qing Dynasty, books were edited and printed here.