November 19-20, 2007 Interactive lecturing By Malek Tabbal,Associate Professor & Chairman Department of Physics, AUBBeirut, LebanonE-mail: email@example.com Workshop
Main Learning Outcomes Day one: after reflecting on how an effective lecture can be planned, we will present a draft plan of an effective lecture session. Day two: after sharing my experience on interactive lecturing in large classes at AUB, we will apply a simple yet effective way to turn your classroom into a lively but well structured interactive session.
OUTLINE, Day 1: Effective lecturing • Session 1*: (2 hours) • Introduction: Outline, presentation • Discussion questions on the lecturing process. • Guidelines to have in mind when preparing a lecture BREAK • Session 2*: (2 hours) • Plan and draft a lecture. • Examples of effective lecturing: Discussion & assessment. • Wrap-up of Day 1 and additional talking points. * These sessions were originally designed and developed by Dr. Amal Bou Zeineddine of AUB
Warm up Discussion Questions • Pre Lecture • 1. Why do I use the lecture method in my course? • 2. How do I prepare for my lecture? What specific decisions do I take into consideration when planning a lecture? • 3. Do I rehearse my lecture before I go in?
Warm up Discussion Questions During Lecture 4. Do I read my lecture or “tell” it to students? 5. How would I describe students’ behavior/attitude in my lecture? 6. How do I know that my students are with me during my lecture? Post Lecture 7. What do I do to make sure that students attained the set objectives for my lecture?
Guidelines to Have in Mind When Preparing a Lecture (Adapted from: Teaching Methods (2000), Center for Teaching and Learning, University of Chicago) • Who are my students? What can I assume with absolute certainty what they know? • What are the major points that I want to get across in this lecture? If my students walk out of the lecture knowing only one new idea, skill, or concept, what would it be? • What concrete examples can I use to emphasize these points? Can I think of any examples that draw on my students' own experiences?
Guidelines to Have in Mind When Preparing a Lecture 4. What kinds of connections will my students have to make to previously covered material? Should I plan to provide these connections? 5. In what ways will my presentation be different as a lecture from what it would have been as an essay on the topic?
End of Session 1, Day 1. BREAK
I. Lecture Introduction 1. I start my lecture by announcing the specific learning outcomes. Example(s): 2. I start the lecture by posing a question or problem to be solved during the lecture. Example(s): 3. I tell students how I expect them to use the lecture material in lab sessions, classes, assessment etc. Example(s): 4. I begin my lecture with a quick summary of key points of previous lecture. Example(s): 5. Other suggestions: Example(s): Planning a Lecture
II. Lecture Body 6. I make my lecture conversational (ask questions, ask for oral/ written responses, pause for 2/3 minutes for student questions/summary etc. Example(s): 7. I relate my lecture to real life situations. Example(s): 8. I include more than 4 concepts in a 50-minute lecture. Example(s): 9. I repeat key ideas and connect them to the following concept. Example(s): 10. Other suggestions: Example(s): Planning a Lecture
III. Lecture Conclusion 11. I plan time for student questions/clarifications. Example(s): 12. I summarize at the end of my lecture. Example(s): 13. Other Suggestions: Example(s): Planning a Lecture
IV. Lecture Delivery 14. I cue important ideas by varying speech rate, volume, pitch. Example(s): 15. I speak to the students and maintain eye contact ( i.e. not speak to the board, walls, notes or floor). Example(s): 16. I let my sense of humor/enthusiasm show. Example(s): 17. Other Suggestions: Example(s): Planning a Lecture
V. Reflections 22. I record and/or videotape myself lecturing. Example(s): 18. I make notes to myself after my lecture (what went well, what didn’t). Example(s): 23. Other Suggestions. Example(s): 19. I use my students’ feedback to modify/improve my lecture. Example(s): 20. I solicit feedback from my peers. Example(s): 21. I know my students’ ability in note- taking skills. Example(s): Planning a Lecture
End & Summary of Day 1 • The advantages and disadvantages of the lecture method were assessed. • We have presented the guidelines to have in mind when preparing an efficient lecture. • A plan of an efficient lecture was designed and drafted.
OUTLINE, Day 2: Interactive lecturing • Session 1: (2 hours) • Feed-back from participants on Day 1. • Introduction • Issues to consider when teaching “large classes”. • Implementing interactive teaching. BREAK • Session 2: (2 hours) • Plan and draft an interactive lecture: “Converting” your lecture into an interactive one. • Examples of interactive lecturing: Discussion and assessment. • Wrap-up of Day Two and additional talking points • Conclusion of workshop: discuss implementation & follow-up
In this session, we shall present a simple and effective way to turn your classroom into alively but well structured interactivesession by - enhancing teacher-student communication- encouraging student-student interaction Goal of the session
Why do we lecture? • We teach the way we were taught! • Thought to be the most effective way of delivering a large amount of information in a short period of time. • Nice and clear overview of the material. • Is it a HABIT?
BUT… From Mazur, Physics Today (1996)
Teaching Large Classes: An Uphill Battle? Anything you can do in a large class, you can do better in a small one! (P. Wankat) Everybody is against it but we have to do it!!
Teaching Large Classes: An Uphill Battle? • 1. How do we define a large class? Why do we usually use the lecture method in large classes? 2. How do you think students feel in a large class? What about you?
Teaching Large Classes: An Uphill Battle? (II) • 3. Do you believe that class size influences: • Your teaching effectiveness? • The organization and delivery of the material? • Your student assessment plan? • Management of your class?
Teaching Large Classes: An Uphill Battle? (III) • 4. In your opinion, how long is the attention span of students in a large class? • 5. How would you describe an interactive lecture given to a large class? Have you ever used interactive lecturing in large classes? Is applying an interactive method of learning in a large class is the last thing you would want to do?
Peer Instruction*: an example of interactive lecturing * Adapted from “Peer Instruction: a user’s manual”, E. Mazur, Prentice Hall (1997). Introduction Lecturing: presentation of a concept 4 50 minutes Ask a multiple-choice conceptual question (ConcepTest) 10 Conclusion Students discuss possible answers with each other 1 4 1 2 Solicit answers from student and summarize 1 2 1 10 10 This represents the ideal lecture 1 2 1
Example of a conceptest A train car moves along a long straight track. The graph shows the position as a function of time for this train. The graph shows that the train: 1. speeds up all the time. 2. slows down all the time. 3. speeds up part of the time and slows down part of the time. 4. moves at a constant velocity Position Time
Student response • Show of hands. • Flashcards. • Clickers http://www.colorado.edu/physics/EducationIssues/dubsoncards.JPG
Variations along the same theme: the ConcepTest • Question posed: 1 minute • Student thinks, each on his/her own and answers: 1 min. • Student discusses answer with neighbor: 2 min. • Student shows revised answer. • Explanation of correct answer: 1 min.
Two levels of interaction • Teacher-student: • active solicitation of student participation. • teacher enthusiasm is a must and is contagious!! • Student-student: • Students can explain to each other more efficiently than teachers • Explaining to others leads to clarification and better understanding of concepts.
Some Advantages • Student actively involved in the learning process. • Particularly suitable for large classes where other active-learning approaches are difficult to use. • Easy to implement. • Acquire the habit of reading the material before coming to class (Check using graded pop-quizzes).
More Advantages • Immediate feed-back to teacher on student understanding. • Improved attendance. • Emphasis on concept based understanding that helps problem-solving and discourages rote learning
And More… • Short questions can be given to start or to wrap up a lecture. • Vary the methods: use class demonstration and multi-media (short movies). • Call on some students (sitting in the back!) to answer.
BUT… • Less lecturing time means less material covered! • Student should read before coming to class? You must be joking! • Level of multiple-choice conceptual questions? • Availability of a suitable textbook? • Uncooperative students...
End of Session 1, Day 2. BREAK
Planning an interactive lecture • How do I make my lecture interactive? • Can learning be achieved by questioning? • How can I make my lecture “conversational”?
Planning an interactive lecture • How many short questions can I ask during my lecture? • Design 3 or 4 multiple choice questions that you can introduce in your lecture. • i. • ii. • iii. • iv.
Summary of Day 2 • We have presented a simple and effective way to turn your classroom into alively but well structured interactive session. • The major advantages of this technique are the following:- it triggersstudent involvementin the teaching-learning process. - it emphasizes onconceptual understandingas opposed to rote-memorization. - easy to implement!
Thank you! And good luck in your lecturing... Acknowledgements: Dr. Amal Bou Zeineddine.