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What is Curriculum?

What is Curriculum?

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What is Curriculum?

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  1. What is Curriculum? • A regular course of study; an accepted schedule or routine • In other words, the content of your classes, “what” you teach • How many of you have been through a curriculum revision recently? • Are any of you doing unique things with your music or fine arts curriculum? • How many of you have computers in your music classrooms?

  2. Trends in Music Education 1950’s • 1957 Sputnik • 1959 Woodshole Conference • Influential book from this time: • “The Process of Education”- Jerome Brunner

  3. Trends in Music Education 1960’s • By 1961-over half the funding from large foundations went to education • 1960’s Baby Boom • 1963 SAT scores hit all-time high • 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) • 1965 National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is formed • Youth movement • Comprehensive Musicianship

  4. Trends in Music Education 1970’s • The decade was characterized by decline • Rising oil prices and shortages caused cut-backs • The student boom started to slow down • 1975 public law 94-172 • SAT scores plunged to all-time lows • General public lost confidence in public education • There was a call to go “back-to-the-basics”

  5. Trends in Music Education 1970’s(not in text) • Pop/Rock music is incorporated into the curriculum in many schools • CEMREL- (Central Midwest Regional Educational Laboratory) a private curriculum development laboratory in Aesthetic Education • Library now housed at U of I • Important book from the 70’s • A Philosophy of Music Education” – Bennett Reimer

  6. Trends in Music Education 1980’s • 1983- “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” • Cafeteria style curriculum • 25% of credits went to PE, remedial and/or work-related courses • Americans spent less time in school than other countries • Not enough homework being given • Study skills not being learned

  7. Trends in Music Education 1980’s • 1983- “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform” (continued) • New teachers were coming from the bottom quarter of graduating college students • Teacher salaries were too low • There was a shortage of teachers in math and the sciences • Suggested that 4 yrs of English, 3 yrs of Math, Science and Social Studies, and ½ a year of computer be required • Also suggested, that we raise our standards for both students and teachers

  8. Trends in Music Education 1980’s (not in text) • 1983- College Board Report • 1982- formation of Discipline Based Arts Education (DBAE) • Outcomes-based education • Students are evaluated based on certain outcomes rather than completion of particular subject matter with letter grades

  9. Trends in Music Education 1980’s (not in text) • Important books from this decade: • “A Place Called School”-John Goodlad • Horace’s Compromise”-Theodore Sizer

  10. Trends in Music Education 1990’s • Goals 2000- Clinton Administration’s plan for educational reform • 1994-National Standards are released • Accountability Movement and School Reform Movement • 1997- Preliminary draft of “Illinois Learning Standards” is released

  11. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1959- The Young Composers Project • 1963-1973- The Contemporary Music Project (CMP) • 1963- The Yale Seminar (not supported by MENC)

  12. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1963- The Yale Seminar findings: • The quality of music being used in schools was poor • Jazz, pop, non-western music was not being used at all • Performance levels in schools were excellent • There was a surplus of musicians for the job market and the musicality of these performers was low

  13. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1963- The Yale Seminar recommendations: • Developing musicality should be the primary goals of education • The musical repertoire should be expanded • More guided listening with sequential listening experiences through all grades • Small and authentic ensembles should be emphasized • Advanced theory and literature classes should be available • Start musicians in residence programs

  14. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1964- The Julliard Repertory project: • Vittorio Giannini was project director • MENC gave its support • Sought to create a body of quality music for grades K-6 • Music was tested on real music teachers • The final project included 230 compositions both vocal and instrumental • Eventually published and distributed by Canyon Press

  15. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1965- Comprehensive Musicianship: • Developed out of one of the seminars from CMP • Suggested we approach music teaching through an interdisciplinary approach • Assessment was to be done in 4 areas: • Descriptive competence • Performing competence • Creative competence • Attitude • “Blueprint for Band” by Robert Garafolo • “Comprehensive Musicianship Through Classroom Music” from the Hawaii music curriculum program

  16. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1967- Tanglewood Symposium: • Sponsored by MENC • Participants were selected from various professions including teachers, musicians and politicians • Attempted to make recommendations for improving music education in the US • Resulted in a philosophical statement for music education (read The Tanglewood Declaration, p. 44) • The Goals and Objectives Project (1968) • Director was Paul Lehman • Read the 8 priority objectives on p. 46-47 • This eventually influences the National Standards

  17. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2 • 1967- Harvard project Zero: • Headed up by Howard Gardner • A project focusing on cognitive development as it relates to arts education • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (“Frames of Mind”) eventually grew from this project • Arts Propel (1982) a project based on these findings was used in the Pittsburgh Public Schools. • Arts Propel proposed studying music through production, perception and reflection

  18. The Symposium Movement- Chap. 2(not in text) • 1968- Hawaii Curriculum Program: • A state-wide curriculum based on work done in the Manhattenville project of the 1970’s (spiral curriculum) • 1978-1981 Ann Arbor Symposium • 1986 Crane symposium • 1999 Vision 2020 • Tallahassee, FL on the campus of FSU • Sponsored by MENC as a follow up to Tanglewood