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Berlin Airlift & NATO

Berlin Airlift & NATO

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Berlin Airlift & NATO

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  1. Berlin Airlift & NATO How did the Berlin Airlift and NATO contribute to increasing tensions of the Cold War?

  2. C) Berlin Blockade and Airlift (10min) June 1948 - May 1949

  3. Factors Causing the Blockade • Marshall Plan • Union of Western German (Bizonia) states creating its own currency • Eastern European countries would buy Western Germany currency which devalues the Eastern European currency • Differing aims for Germany • Russia wants it to crumble • US/ BR want to rebuild its economy Therefore, Russia blocks off surface routes from Western Germany to West Berlin

  4. Federal Republic of Germany Berlin Blockade 1948- 49

  5. Report on Negotiations with Soviets, ca. 1948

  6. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/berlin_airlift/large/documents/index.php?pagenumber=1&documentdate=1948-00-00&documentid=3-3&studycollectionid=Berlinhttp://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/berlin_airlift/large/documents/index.php?pagenumber=1&documentdate=1948-00-00&documentid=3-3&studycollectionid=Berlin

  7. General Lucius Clay • Called for armed convoys to push through the blockade • Plan was never implemented • American ground forces in Europe were not strong enough to defeat the USSR

  8. Berlin Airlift • US decides not to start a war and decides to send supplies to West Berlin by air (British proposal) • Shows the resolve of the US to keep West Berlin C-47: Used to carry supplies (3.5 tons each)

  9. “Little Lift” • Using the C-47s in April 1948 (102 C-47s available) • Gatow and Tempelhof used as landing strips • Back in November 30, 1945, it was agreed in writing, that there would be three 20-mile wide air corridors providing access to the city

  10. 1948

  11. "Operation Vittles” "Operation Plane Fare" • 3,475 tons of supplies were needed daily to keep the over 2 million people alive 3475 ÷ 3.5 (capacity of C-47) = approximately 1000 flights/day needed!!! • Coal was the largest necessity (industries) • Later in June, C-54’s were used (10tons) – faster too • Spacing of 3 minutes, both types of planes were used

  12. Increasing tensionJune 28, 1948 • US flies 60 B-29 bombers to Britain • B-29s were the atomic bomb carriers • But the US had no readily available atomic bombs (Stalin doesn’t know this)

  13. Airlift Facts • The blockade lasted 318 days (11 months) • In the winter of 1948–49 Berliners lived on dried potatoes, powdered eggs and cans of meat • 4 hours of electricity/day • 275,000 flights carried over 1½ million tons of supplies (2.3 million with Britain) • On 16 April 1949, 1400 flights brought in 13,000 tons of supplies in one day • Some pilots dropped chocolate and sweets

  14. Candy Drops

  15. Significance • May 1929 Soviets end the blockade • They did not want war either • Airlift continues for a few more months to stock Berlin in case of another blockade • 2.5 million West Berliners saved without violence • US would see the importance of air transport and increases production of transport planes • Template for Cold War conflicts – push to the point of war but drawing back just before (“Brinkmanship”) • Leads to the creation of NATO

  16. D) NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Truman Doctrine = political warning • Marshal Plan = economic resistance • NATO = military alliance • US, Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Italy, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg

  17. Reasons for NATO • Protection from “unprovoked” attack • Russian communism posed a threat to democracy

  18. Reasons for NATO • Protection from “unprovoked” attack • Russian communism posed a threat to democracy

  19. NATO • America to be its leader • Headquarters in Paris

  20. Significance • Organized defence of the West • European-American cooperation – total end of isolationism • First American peace time military alliance • Soviets will respond with the Warsaw Pact in 1955

  21. Essay Assignment • Truman Doctrine • Marshall Plan • Berlin Blockade/Airlift • NATO To what extent do the actions of the USA between 1945-1949 reflect a policy of containment towards communism? OR To what extent were the Americans/ Russians responsible for escalating Cold War tensions between 1945-1949? (causes and effects)