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Animal Waste Management

Animal Waste Management. Animal Waste Management. Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling. What is Manure or Waste?. Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc. Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition.

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Animal Waste Management

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  1. Animal Waste Management

  2. Animal Waste Management Outline • Manure/Waste Characteristics • Animal Waste Handling Systems • Sampling

  3. What is Manure or Waste? • Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted • Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc

  4. Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition Depends on: • Animal species • Diet - digestibility, protein, fiber content • Animal age & productivity • Number of animals • Waste handling system (added H20, bedding)

  5. Units of Measure • Manure production • lbs/day/1000 lbs live weight • lbs/animal/day • Gallons or ft3/day/1000 lb live weight

  6. Nutrients in Manure Major Nutrients (N, P, and K) • Presented in terms of nutrient itself (N, P, K) • Commercial Fertilizer expressed as • Nitrogen – N • Phosphorus - P205 • Potassium - K2O • Must convert!!! Other Nutrients • Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl

  7. Example: Manure Production For A dairy farm milking 100 cows a day, determine: • Mass of manure produced per day • Volume of manure per day • Pounds of N, P, and K produced per day • Storage capacity required on the farm if the manure is to be stored for three months

  8. Manure/Waste Classification Generally classified as liquid, slurry, solid depending upon solids content • Liquid< 5% solids • Slurry 5-20% solids • Solid >20% solids Solids content determines how manure or waste is handled

  9. Manure/Waste Handling System Components • Housing facility • Collection and transfer • Storage/Treatment • Transport • Utilization

  10. Manure/Waste Handling Systems • All Systems start with production by animals • All systems end with utilization • Common - land application as a fertilizer for crop production • No System is best

  11. Solid/Semi Solid Systems • System of choice for most poultry operations • Material from dairies often not “dry” enough to stack well • Separated solids but separating liquids and solids mean two sets of manure handling equipment • Separate runoff/leachate holding facilities may be required

  12. Solid Manure: Poultry Litter

  13. Deep - pack • Sometimes used for swine, beef, and dairy production • Results in semi-composted solid waste

  14. Liquid Systems • Common in swine and dairy production • Allows greater automation of manure collection with flush systems

  15. Components of Liquid Systems • Collection • Flush (gutter or slotted floor) • Scrape (tractor or cable) • Transfer • Conveyor - auger • Pump • Gravity channel, pipes • Storage • Tanks – steel or concrete • Earthen basin or lagoon • Transport • Tank wagon • Irrigation system

  16. Pigs on a slotted floor

  17. Concrete Storage Tank

  18. Lagoon

  19. Manure Treatment and Storage

  20. Manure Treatment Objectives • Stabilize manure • Odor reduction • Nutrient management • Energy recovery • Pathogen reduction • Reduce gaseous emissions

  21. Compost Fertilizer Anaerobic Digestion Energy Solids Direct Combustion Chemicals Gasification Some Manure Treatment Options

  22. Manure Treatment Systems - Principles • Biological processes • Anaerobic (w/out oxygen) • Aerobic (with oxygen) • Chemical Treatment • Physical processes e.g. solids separation

  23. Why Treat Manure: Water Quality Concerns

  24. Why Treat Manure: Air Quality Concerns

  25. Example: On-Farm Swine Manure Treatment System Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

  26. Liquid-Solid Separator with Polymer (PAM) Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

  27. Nitrifying Pellets Nitrification for Ammonia Removal Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

  28. Phosphorus Separation Module Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

  29. Anaerobic Lagoon was Transformed into “Aerobic” Pond After Before Sept. 2002 Sept. 2003 Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

  30. Covered In-Ground Anaerobic Digester Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

  31. Tomato Production in Greenhouse using treated swine lagoon liquid Nitrification Biofilters Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

  32. Some Questions to ask when Selecting a Treatment System • What happens to nutrients • How do products of the treatment system impact the environment, regulations • Pathogen reduction • Energy generated and/or consumed by system • Pretreatment necessary? • Operation and maintenance • Installed anywhere? • $$$$ COST $$$$

  33. Utilization • energy (methane generation) • bedding (separated solids) • mulch • organic matter • plant nutrients

  34. Testing Manure/Waste • Test manure at least once a year • Actual data much better than tabulated • Variation due to diet, animal age, handling, storage, etc

  35. Sampling Manure • Required at least annually • Must be “representative” • Actual samples much more reliable than tabulated values

  36. Representative Sampling from Liquid Storage • Best time to sample is just before land application • Agitation critical—nitrogen and potassium can be characterized by sampling a vertical profile, but phosphorus can not. • Continuous agitation needed to assure phosphorus remains in solution

  37. Sampling a lagoon • Want to sample vertical profile - don’t need to sample sludge layer, unless the sludge is to be removed or lagoon is being closed • Use a tube to sample entire profile or • Sample at 5 or 6 discrete locations and composite sample

  38. Sampling Solid/Semi-solid Manure • Use a 3’ long piece of metal tubing with handles attached to get sampler into pile • Pull samples from 10 to 15 locations • Composite samples, mix well

  39. Shipping Samples • Freeze if they can’t be shipped immediately • For liquids, fill a plastic quart container with screw-on lid about 2/3 full • For solids, place in gallon-sized plastic bag, twist and tie tightly • Label all samples with name, sample number, location and test date

  40. Safety Considerations • Dangerous gases (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide) are produced when an anaerobic manures are agitated. If possible remove animals from building. If not, ventilate at highest rate. • Methane gas is a concern due to explosive nature especially in confined spaces

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