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  1. Unit9

  2. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement Watch the movie clip and answer the following questions. Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 1 • How do you understand the statement that “every stammerer always fears they will fall back to square one”? This statement points out the psychological cause of stammering. It means that anyone who suffers from stammering may have the fear of being defeated in competition, or being inferior to his rivals. 2. What is Lionel’s suggestion for the King to shrug away his psychological problem ? Lionel asked the king to erase the shadow of his father and bother as better kings than himself, remove the invisible pressure they gave him when he was a child, and be himself.

  3. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement The King’s Speech Pre-reading Activities - Audiovisual supplement 2

  4. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement The two men enter and sit down. A moment of uncertainty. Then Bertie blurts. Video Script1 BERTIE LIONEL BERTIE LIONEL Here’s your shilling, Logue (puts shilling down) I understand what you were trying to say, Logue. I went about it the wrong way. I’m sorry. Now here I am. Is the nation ready for two minutes of radio silence? Every stammerer always fears they will fall back to square one. I don’t let that happen. You won’t let that happen.

  5. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement BERTIE LIONEL BERTIE LIONEL BERTIE If I fail in my duty... David could come back. I’ve seen the placards “Save Our King!” They don’t mean me. Every other monarch in history succeeded someone who was dead, or about to be. My predecessor is not only alive, but very much so. What a bloody mess! I can’t even give them a Christmas Speech. Like your Dad used to do? Precisely. Your father. He’s not here. Yes he is. He’s on that bloody shilling I gave you. Video Script1

  6. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement LIONEL LIONEL (CONT’D) Easy enough to give away. You don’t have to carry him around in your pocket. Or your brother. You don’t need to be afraid of things you were afraid of when you were five. A pause - You’re very much your own man, Bertie. Your face is next, mate. Video Script1

  7. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement • Stuttering Cultural background1 Stuttering is a communication disorder that affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, persists throughout the life span. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, known as “disfluencies.” Disfluencies are not necessarily problematic; however, they can impede communication when a speaker produces too many of them or does not resolve them promptly.

  8. Cultural background Audiovisual supplement 2. Stuttered speech Cultural background2 Stuttered speech often includes repetitions of words or parts of words, as well as prolongations of speech sounds. The frequency of these disfluencies among people who stutter tends to be much greater than it is for the general population.

  9. Structural analysis Rhetorical features This text is an autobiographical narrative and it is intended to tell the readers that the building-up of self-confidence is very important to one’s personal development. Structural analysis Part I (Paragraphs 1 - 2): The writer presents a striking contrast between his successful career as an actor and television announcer and his severe stutter in his early childhood. (beginning) (Paragraphs 3 - 22): The author recollects how his high school teacher, Professor Crouch, helped him overcome his stutter and find his voice. (development) Part II

  10. Structural analysis Rhetorical features Part III (Paragraphs 23 - 29): The author tells the reader how his voice found with the help of Professor Crouch turned a new leaf in his life and brought him great successes in memorable roles on stage, in films, and on television, and how grateful he is to his teacher, “the father of my resurrected voice.” (ending) Structural analysis

  11. Structural analysis Rhetorical features The New Testament is mentioned twice in the text, first in the first paragraph and then in the last paragraph. It is repeated and distributed this way to give the essay a sense of completeness and to imply that Professor Crouch was “the father of his resurrected voice”. Resurrection refers to the rising of Jesus from the tomb after his death. His resurrection is the basis for the Christian belief that not only Jesus but all Christians will triumph over death. Rhetorical Features 1

  12. Detailed reading HOW I FOUND MY VOICE James Earl Jones Today I am known for my voice as much as for my acting. It has been my good fortune to receive jobs such as the speaking role of Darth Vader in George Lucas’s Star Wars trilogy and the voice-over announcer for CNN cable television. I also narrated Aaron Copland’s Lincoln Portrait on a compact disc I recorded with the Seattle Symphony. Perhaps my greatest honor came when I was asked to read the New Testament on tape. But it took a long time to believe such good things could happen to me. When I was a youngster I stuttered so badly I was completely unable to speak in public. Detailed reading1-2 1 2

  13. Detailed reading Since I was eight I’d had trouble speaking. It was so bad that whenever I stood up in class to read, the other kids snickered and laughed. I always sat down, my face burning with shame. I’m not sure what caused my stuttering. Perhaps it was an emotional problem. I was born in Arkabutla, Mississippi, and when I was about five, I moved to live with my grandparents on their farm near Dublin in northern Michigan. It was traumatic moving from the warm, easy ways of catfish country to the harsh climate of the north, where people seemed so different. 3 Detailed reading3-4 4

  14. Detailed reading Detailed reading5 Fortunately, my granddaddy was a gentleman, a farmer who taught me to love the land. He was short and he had a prodigious amount of energy. He even built a church to please grandmother, a fervent worshiper of the Lord. All sorts of people were invited to our little church; white, black and American Indian came together in a nondenominational fellowship. Granddad’s Irish heritage came out in his love for language; during the week he used “everyday talk”, but on Sunday he spoke only the finest English. 5

  15. Detailed reading As much as I admired his fluency, I couldn’t come close to it. I finally quit Sunday school and church, not wanting to be humiliated any more. All through my grade school years, the only way the teacher could assess my progress was for me to write down everything I had learned. Oh, I could talk, all right. Our farm animals knew that. I found it easy to call the pigs, tell the dogs to round up the cows, and vent my feelings to Fanny, the horse whose big brown eyes and lifted ears seemed to express interest in all I said. But when visitors came and I was asked to say hello, I could only stand, pound my feet, and grit my teeth. That awful feeling of my voice being trapped got worse as I grew older. 6 Detailed reading6-7 7

  16. Detailed reading Then when I was 14, Professor Donald Crouch came to our school. He was a retired college professor who had settled in nearby Brethren, a Mennonite community. When he heard that our agricultural high was teaching Chaucer, Shakespeare and other classics, he couldn’t stand not being a part of our school. So he left hisretreat to teach us English, history and Latin. Donald Crouch was a tall, lean man with gray hair; English was his favorite subject, poetry was his deepest love. He’s been anassociateof Robert Frost. He held a book of poems as if it were a diamond necklace, turning pages as if uncovering treasures. He memorized a poem every day, explaining that if he ever lost his eyesight he would still be able to savor all that beauty. 8 Detailed reading8-9 9

  17. Detailed reading When he learned that I not only loved poetry but was writing it, we found a kinship. There was, however, one difficulty between us. Professor Crouch (we always called him that) could not stand the fact I refused to read my poems to the class. “Jim, poetry is meant to be read aloud, just like sermons,” he pressed. “You should be able to speak those beautiful words.” I shook my head and turned away. 10 Detailed reading10-12 11 12

  18. Detailed reading Then he tricked me. I labored long and hard on a poem, and after handing it in I waited expectantly for his critique. It didn’t come. Instead, one day as the students assembled, he challenged me. “Jim, I don’t think you wrote this.” I stared at him in disbelief. “Why,” I started, anger flooding me, “of course I did!” “Well, then,” he said, “you’ve got to prove it by getting up and reciting it from memory.” By then the other students had settled at their desks. He looked at me meaningfully and nodded. With knees shaking, I walked up before my peers. “Jim will recite his latest poem,” announced Professor Crouch. 13 Detailed reading13-17 14 15 16 17

  19. Detailed reading Detailed reading18-20 For a moment I stood breathless. I could see smirks and wry smiles on some faces. Then I began. And kept going. I recited my poem all the way through without hesitation or fault! I stood amazed and floated back to my desk in a daze, amid wild applause. Afterward, Professor Crouch congratulated me. “Aha,” he said. “Now we have something here. Not only will you have to write more poetry and read it aloud to know how good it feels, but I’m sure that you will want to read other writers’ poetry before the class.” I was dubious about that, but said I’d try. 18 19 20

  20. Detailed reading Detailed reading21-22 Soon I began to discover something other stutterers know. Most have no problem singing because the lyrics’ rhythmic pattern flows by itself. I found the same cadences in poetry, and before long my fellow students actually looked forward to hearing me recite. I loved the rolling beat of The Song of Hiawatha, especially since I had Indian blood in my veins. I discovered I did have a voice, a strong one. Under Professor Crouch’s tutelage, I entered oratorical contests and debates. He never pushed anything at me again; he just wanted all his students to wake up. 21 22

  21. Detailed reading Detailed reading23-24 As my stuttering disappeared, I began dreaming of becoming an actor, like my father, who was then performing in New York City. No one in my family had ever gone to college. But encouraged by Professor Crouch, I took exams and won a scholarship to the University of Michigan. There I entered the drama department and after graduation fulfilled my ROTC responsibility by serving with the Army’s Cold Weather Training Command on mountain maneuvers in Colorado. 23 24

  22. Detailed reading 25 Later, on the GI Bill, I signed up with the American Theater Wing in New York and supported myself between roles by sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages. In 1962 I earned an Obie for my role in an off-Broadway production of Othello, and have been an actor ever since. Meanwhile, I always kept in touch with my old professor, by letter and telephone. Every time we talked it was always, “Hi, Jim. Read any good poetry lately?” He was losing his sight and I remembered his early explanation of why he had memorized poetry. In later years when I was doing Shakespeare’s Timon of Athens at the Yale Repertory Theater in New Haven, Connecticut, I phoned him. “Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it?” Detailed reading25-26 26

  23. Detailed reading 27 “Jim,” he sighed, “I’m blind now. I’d hate not to be able to see you acting. It would hurt too much.” “I understand, Professor,” I said, helped in part by the realization that though my mentor could no longer see, he was still living in a world vibrant with all of the beautiful treasures he had stored. About two years later I learned Donald Crouch had passed on. When I was asked to record the New Testament, I really did it for a tall, lean man with gray hair who had not only helped to guide me to the author of the Scriptures, but as the father of my resurrected voice, had also helped me find abundant life. Detailed reading27-29 28 29

  24. Detailed reading Why could the narrator hardly believe that such good things as described in Paragraph 1 could ever happen to him? (Paragraph 2) Detailed reading2—Question 2 Because the great achievements were far beyond the expectations of such a poor stutterer as he used to be. When he was young he was completely unable to speak in public due to his serious stuttering. Thus he could never imagine that he would make such good achievements.

  25. Detailed reading Why does the narrator describe his moving at the age of five as traumatic? (Paragraph 4) Detailed reading5—Question 4 Because he felt that the place he moved to was drastically different climatically and culturally from where he had been.

  26. Detailed reading Detailed reading8—Question 6~7 Why did the narrator quit Sunday school and church? (Paragraph 6) Because he wanted to avoid the humiliation he suffered there for his stuttering. Why does the narrator say the farm animals knew he could talk? (Paragraph 7) Because the animals never laughed at him, he was not nervous at all when he talked to them as a way of venting his feelings.

  27. Detailed reading Detailed reading8—Question 9 Why couldn’t Professor Crouch stand not being a part of the narrator’s school? (Paragraph 9) Because he loved English classics, especially poetry, which was one of the subjects taught at the narrator’s school. His deep love for poetry was vividly described in the metaphor: “He held a book of poems as if it were a diamond necklace, turning pages as if uncovering treasures.”

  28. Detailed reading Detailed reading8—Question 13~18 What event made the narrator open his mouth in public without stuttering for the first time? (Paragraphs 13-18) It was Professor Crouch’s trick. When the narrator handed in his poem, Crouch purposefully challenged him for his authorship. Consequently the narrator was provoked into reciting his poem in the presence of his classmates without stuttering.

  29. Detailed reading Group discussions Have you ever spoken to a large audience? How did you feel? Do you think voice is important to personal development? Detailed reading8– Activity

  30. Detailed reading the voice-over announcer: the unseen announcer who makes a commentary or gives an explanation which is heard as part of a film or television program Detailed reading1– the voice-over announcer Comparison: newscaster, host/hostess newscaster: sb. who reads the news during a newscast host/hostess:sb. who introduces and talks to the people taking part in television or radio programs e.g. The newscaster was in competition with ten others for the job. e.g. Benidick is a popular TV host.

  31. Detailed reading in public: If you do sth. in public, people in general will hear about it or see it. Detailed reading1– in public e.g. She was too proud to show her grief in public. On this occasion, we departed from our normal practice of holding the meetings in public. Antonym: in private e.g. Cecil can be very rude in private, though in public he is usually polite.

  32. Detailed reading trauma: n. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture or an emotional wound or shock often having long-lasting effects Detailed reading1– trauma 1 e.g. Counseling is helping him work through this trauma. 心理辅导正帮助他面对痛苦。 The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma. 恐惧症可能源于童年的创伤。

  33. Detailed reading Derivation: Detailed reading1– trauma 2 traumatic a. (1) of a wound or injury (2) (of an experience) distressing and unforgettable e.g. a traumatic operation e.g. The onset of depression often follows a traumatic event. 抑郁症发作常常发生在遭受创伤之后。

  34. Detailed reading prodigious: a. (1) so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe Detailed reading1-- prodigious e.g. That writer has prodigious literary output. (2) far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree e.g. We are all overwhelmed by his prodigious memory. Synonym: colossal , stupendous, extraodinary, exceptional

  35. Detailed reading come close to: v. become almost the same as, or very near to Detailed reading1-- come close to e.g. His performance has not yet come close to winning the award. 他的表演离获奖水平差远了。 get close to nature leave sb. close to tears 使某人几乎掉泪 Translate the novel close to the original. The speaker’s remark hit close to home. 发言人的话很中肯。

  36. Detailed reading assess: v. consider or judge the quality or worth of sth. Detailed reading1– assess 1 e.g. They say they can assess intelligence from these tests. The test was designed to assess the students’ level of language proficiency rather than what they have achieved from the course. Confusing words: access: v. & n. enter /entrance assert: v. declare to be one’s rights e.g. The database allows you to access the sales figures in a number of ways. e.g. She asserted her ideas loudly and clearly.

  37. Detailed reading Confusing words: Detailed reading2– assess 2 asset: n. property assent:v. agree e.g. to assess assets 估价资产 e.g. The Queen has benevolently assented to my requests.

  38. Detailed reading round up: v. gather together animals or people, often when they do not want to be gathered together; arrest a number of people Detailed reading2– round up e.g. The cows are rounded up twice a day for milking. The dog helps the shepherd in rounding up the sheep. The police had to round up some football hooligans as the situation seemed to be getting out of hand.

  39. Detailed reading vent: v. give free expression to Detailed reading2– vent e.g. I don’t see why you should vent your anger like this. It won’t do anyone any good. The rioters vented their indignation by burning a number of police cars when they learned about the brutal murder of a young black African American. n. as in the expression “give vent to” e.g. Most people did not air their views at the meeting; rather, they took it to be an opportunity to give vent to their strong feelings.

  40. Detailed reading retreat: n. a quiet or private place that one goes to in order to rest or concentrate on a particular problem or task Detailed reading3– retreat e.g. The platoon was forced to retreat under heavy enemy gunfire. After he retired from his public position, the former politician retreated to a quiet life in the countryside.

  41. Detailed reading associate: n. sb. you work with, esp. in business Detailed reading3– associate e.g. a business associate Comparison: acquaintance: n. sb. you know a little, who is not a close friend e.g. Mr. Shell is only an acquaintance in the neighbourhood.

  42. Detailed reading savor: v. enjoy and appreciate sth. like food, or drink, or an experience, as much and for as long as one can Detailed reading3– savor e.g. I savored every mouthful of breakfast, reluctant to let it end. He savored the word as he said it.

  43. Detailed reading recite: v. say aloud, esp. a poem from memory Detailed reading3– recite e.g. He recited the poem in front of the whole school. The mayor recited to the queen a long and tedious speech of welcome.

  44. Detailed reading smirk: v. & n. (to) smile in an unpleasant way because sth. bad has happened to sb. else or because you think you have achieved an advantage over others Detailed reading4– smirk e.g. Come on, Professor, don’t smirk at me like that. A smirk flickered at the corner of his mouth as he watched my struggle. They might be forgiven for a small smirk at the troubles of their old rivals.

  45. Detailed reading in a daze: unable to think clearly or understand what is happening because of surprise, upset, fatigue or a hit on the head Detailed reading4– in a daze 1 e.g. She wandered in a daze through the hundreds of brilliant butterflies. He was in a daze and could not understand what was happening. daze: v. stun, as with a heavy blow or shock; stupefy e.g. They can also use their knowledge to daze, harm, or hinder their enemies.

  46. Detailed reading Confusing words: Detailed reading5– in a daze 2 dazzle: v. blind (sb.) for a short time with a bright light; impress (sb.) greatly through splendor, ability e.g. This is a great week for you to dazzle everyone around you with your imagination, finesse and good sense of humor. dizzy: a. feeling you or things around you spinning; feeling or making you feel excited or amused, esp. due to fast change e.g. the dizzy pace of modern life We are dizzy with excitement.

  47. Detailed reading Confusing words: Detailed reading5– in a daze 3 dizzying: a. making you feel confused or dizzy e.g. My studies continued at a dizzying pace. a dizzying view from the 13th floor

  48. Detailed reading vibrant with: lively and exciting with Detailed reading6– vibrant with e.g. This is a city vibrant with life and energy. The drama is vibrant with life all through.

  49. Detailed reading resurrect: v. 1) make sth. exist again or use sth. again Detailed reading7– resurrect 1 e.g. Berry had one last chance to resurrect his international career. In 1893, Coubertin invited sportsmen from all over the world to Paris and announced his plan to resurrect the Olympics in 1896 in Athens. 2) bring sb. dead back to life e.g. That noise is enough to resurrect the dead! Synonym: renascent, revive, renew, revivify, revitalize, resurge, reactivate

  50. Detailed reading Derivation: Resurrection: n. Detailed reading6-7– resurrect 2 Resurrection refers to the rising of Jesus from the tomb after his death; a central and distinctive belief of the Christian faith. The Gospels state that after Jesus was crucified and lay in a tomb between Friday evening and Sunday morning, he rose, in body as well as in spirit, and appeared alive to his followers. His resurrection is the basis for the Christian belief that not only Jesus but all Christians will triumph over death. Christians celebrate the Resurrection on Easter Sunday.