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Chapter 13 – Drug Abuse PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 13 – Drug Abuse

Chapter 13 – Drug Abuse

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Chapter 13 – Drug Abuse

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 13 – Drug Abuse • Definitions of drug abuse • Misconceptions about drug abuse • Types of drugs • The ‘subculture’ of drug dealers & drug users • Legislative approaches • Current issues

  2. What is drug abuse? • Complexity of defining ‘drug’ • Illegal or illicit • Prescription drugs (“happy drugs”) • Common drugs (I.e. caffeine, nicotine) • Alcohol

  3. Defining “Abuse” • Use of any dangerous or illegal substance? • Frequency of use? Overuse? • Physical or psychological dependence? • Social and legal changes (I.e. Prohibition)

  4. Misconceptions About Drug Abuse • Myth: drug use is widespread & skyrocketing • Fact: Overall trend of illegal drugs was stabilization or decline (some exceptions)

  5. Misconceptions • Myth: some drugs are so powerful they lead to instant addiction. (enslavement hypothesis) • Fact: Attitudes, motivations, setting, expectations affect drug use.

  6. Misconceptions • Myth: some soft drugs provide a “gateway” into hard drugs • Fact: many pot smokers have never tried “hard” drugs like heroine

  7. Misconceptions • Myth: drugs cause crime, especially property crime and theft • Fact: most drug users do not commit property crime and theft

  8. Misconceptions • Myth: most Canadians introduced to illegal drugs by evil pushers • Fact: first-time users often introduced to drugs by friends

  9. Categories of Drugs • Stimulants • Depressants • Hallucinogens • Categories are not mutually exclusive (I.e. marijuana- stimulant/depressant)

  10. Stimulants • Keep users alert, excited, able to resist fatigue, elevate mood • I.e. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine

  11. Depressants • Slow functioning of central nervous system, induce sleep, reduce anxiety, produce euphoria • Heroin, PCP morphine, aspirin

  12. Hallucinogens • Produce perceptual distortions (hearing colors, seeing sounds, timelessness) • I.e. LSD, MDMA (ecstasy)

  13. Factors Influencing the effects of drugs • Dosage • Purity/potency • Drug mixing (multiplier effect) • Method of administration • Degree of habituation

  14. Subculture of Illegal Drug Use • A Five Stage Approach? • Experimental • Recreational • Situational • Intensified • Compulsive

  15. Factors Associated with becoming a Drug User • Social nature of drug use • Becoming socialized • Weighing Costs & Benefits (health/expense) • “Aging out”

  16. Becoming a Dealer • The Lure of Profit • Supporting own habit • Finding distributors • Marketing • Customer satisfaction • Dealing with “narcs” • Respecting turfs

  17. Legislative Approaches in Canada • 19th Century: few legal restrictions • 20th Century • 1908 Opium Act • 1929 Opium & Narcotic Drug Act • 1961 Narcotics Control Act – increased sanctions • 1970’s 90% offences for marijuana/hashish

  18. Legislative Approaches • 1980s The War on Drugs • Controlling Supply: • Target Smugglers (ports of entry) • Appropriation of drug funds • Restrictive banking laws • Political pressure on producer countries

  19. The War on Drugs • Controlling Demand • Education Programs (Informed Choices) • Treatment & Counselling Programs

  20. Current Issues & Debates • Decriminalization • Legalization esp. marijuana (The Amsterdam model?) • Broadening medicinal uses esp. palliative care uses • Public health initiatives (in prisons, inner city) • Other legislative approaches (increasing age limits for alcohol)