Download
the atmosphere and air quality n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Atmosphere and Air Quality PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Atmosphere and Air Quality

The Atmosphere and Air Quality

146 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The Atmosphere and Air Quality

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Atmosphere and Air Quality

  2. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Gaseous Composition of the Atmosphere

  3. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Types of Urban Air Pollutants • Primary Pollutant - a pollutant that directly enters the air as a result of natural events or human activities

  4. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Types of Urban Air Pollutants • Secondary Pollutant - a pollutant that is formed in the air through chemical reactions between or among primary pollutants or between primary pollutants and other gases in the atmosphere

  5. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Chemical Classes of Urban Air Pollutants • Carbon Oxides • Sulfur Oxides • Nitrogen Oxides • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) • Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

  6. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Chemical Classes of Urban Air Pollutants • Photochemical Oxidants • O3 (tropospheric ozone) • H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) • PANs (peroxyacetylnitrates)

  7. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Chemical Classes of Urban Air Pollutants • Radioactive Substances • Toxic Metals

  8. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Clean Air Acts • Passed in 1970, 1977, 1990 • Enacted federal air pollution regulations that are enforced by each state • Established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  9. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • NAAQS • 7 Criteria Pollutants • SPMs • Sulfur Oxides • Carbon Monoxide • Nitrogen Oxides • Tropospheric Ozone • VOCs • Lead

  10. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Aair Pollution • NAAQS • Primary NAAQS - standards established to protect human health • Secondary NAAQS - standards established to protect all organisms • Nonattainment Area - any area that does not meet primary or secondary NAAQS for a criteria pollutant

  11. The Atmosphere and Air Quality National Ambient Air Quality Standards Carbon Monoxide 9 ppm over 8-hr period, not to be exceeded more than once a year; 35-ppm for 1-hr period Ozone 0.12 ppm for 1-hr period, not to be exceeded more than once per year

  12. The Atmosphere and Air Quality National Ambient Air Quality Standards Sulfur Dioxide 0.03 ppm annual average; 0.14 ppm for 24-hr period, not to be exceeded more than once per year Nitrogen Oxides 0.05 ppm annual average

  13. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • Tropospheric Ozone • Source: Chemical reactions between VOCs, nitrogen oxides, and sunlight • Health Effects: Reduced lung function; asthma; congestion • Environmental Impacts: Reduced visibility; plant damage, reduced photosynthesis and nutrient uptake, crop destruction; forest diebacks • Property Damage: Rubber; plastics

  14. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • Carbon Monoxide • Source: Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels • Health Effects: Reduced oxygen levels; impaired visual perception; reduced lung function; asthma; congestion • Environmental Impacts: Reduced visibility; plant damage • Property Damage: Rubber; plastics

  15. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides • Source: Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels • Health Effects: Lung damage; respiratory illnesses • Environmental Impacts: Acid deposition; plant damage; photochemical smog; crop destruction • Property Damage: Enhanced chemical weathering

  16. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • SPMs • Source: Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; agriculture; unpaved roads • Health Effects: Lung damage; respiratory illnesses • Environmental Impacts: Reduced visibility (haze • Property Damage: Discoloration of clothing and structures

  17. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Regulation of Urban Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • Lead • Source: Leaded gasoline; lead paint; smelters; lead-acid batteries • Health Effects: Damage to nervous system; cancer; mental retardation; digestive disorders • Environmental Impacts: Harmful to wildlife

  18. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Photochemical (Brown-Air) Smog • A mixture of primary and secondary pollutants (mostly tropospheric ozone) formed under the influence of sunlight

  19. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Photochemical (Brown Air) Smog • Factors of Formation • Topography • Local climate • Population density • Amount of industry • Industrial fuel types

  20. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Industrial (Gray-Air) Smog • Mixture of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid, and SPMs • Found mostly in LDCs where coal and heavy oils are burned • China • Ukraine • Eastern Europe

  21. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • The falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface

  22. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Components • Primary Pollutants • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) • Sulfur Oxides (SOx) Secondary Pollutants • Nitric Acid (HNO3) • Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)

  23. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Acid Sources • Coal-burning power plants • Smelters • Factors • Urban areas

  24. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition • A regional environmental problem • Depends on buffering capacity of soils

  25. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition • Damage to materials • Human health • Aquatic Ecosystems • Acid shock • Aluminum toxicity • Formation of methlymercury

  26. The atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition • Aquatic Ecosystems • Fun Facts • 16,000 lakes in Norway and Sweden contain no fish • 9,000 lakes in U.S. are threatened with excess acidity (most in the Great Lakes!)

  27. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition • Terrestrial Ecosystems • Most damage when pH < 5.1 • Damage to tree foliage bathed in acidic fog

  28. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Acid Deposition • Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition • Terrestrial Ecosystems • Increased susceptibility to various stressors • Cold temperatures • Diseases • Insects • Drought • Depletion of plant nutrients

  29. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Urban Climate • Cities are generally warmer, rainier, foggier, and cloudier than suburbs or rural areas

  30. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Urban Climate • Cities generate enormous amounts of heat • Automobiles • Factories • Furnaces • Lights • Air conditioners • People

  31. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Urban Climate • Urban Heat Island - the buildup of heat in the atmosphere above an urban area

  32. Urban Heat Island Dust Dome

  33. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Indoor Air Pollution • Sources • Combustion • Building materials and furnishings • Household cleaning products • Personal care products • Central heating/cooling systems • Outside sources - radon gas and pesticides • Poor ventilation

  34. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Indoor Air Pollution • Most Dangerous Indoor Air Pollutants • Formaldehyde • Asbestos • Cigarette smoke • Radon-222 • Fiberglass

  35. The Atmosphere and Air Quality • Indoor Air Pollution • Leading cause of cancer • High-risk health problem for humans • “Sick Building Syndrome”