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Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors, Fans and Blowers an Overview

Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors, Fans and Blowers an Overview

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Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors, Fans and Blowers an Overview

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  1. Fluidic and Microfluidic Pumps, Micropumps, Compressors, Fans and Blowers an Overview Craig E. Nelson - Consultant Engineer

  2. Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers Increase Fluid Energy • Velocity – Kinetic Energy • a) Fans • b) Propulsion Propellers • Pressure – Internal Energy – Enthalpy - Heat • a) Pumps • b) Compressors • Velocity and Pressure – Some of Both • a) Pumps • Blowers

  3. Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

  4. Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

  5. Types of Pumps, Fans, Compressors and Blowers

  6. Pump Performance Trade offs

  7. Fluidic System Pressure vs. Flow Curve Determines the type of Pump Needed

  8. Typical Pump Operating Curves

  9. Typical Pump Operating Curves

  10. Fan and Blower Geometries

  11. Pump Type Efficiencies

  12. Some General Pump Theory

  13. The Bernoulli equation is a special statement of the general energy equation Work added to the system is referred to as pump head (hP) Losses from the system are referred to as head loss (hL) Pressure (lbf/in2) is a form of work Strictly Mechanical Energy so we get the equation: P1 + PE1 + KE1 + WK = PE2 + KE2 + WKFRIC + P2 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM

  14. Z1 + (P1/) + (V12/2g) = Z2 + (P2/) + (V22/2g) + hP - hL BERNOULLI’S Equation Z : Elevation (ft) P : Pressure (lb/ft2)  : Density (lb/ft3) V : Velocity (ft/sec) g : acceleration (32.2 ft/sec2) Hp: pump head (ft) HL: Head Loss (ft) = f(L/D)(V2/2Zg) where f : friction factor L: Length D: Diameter

  15. Fluidic Design Equations – Bernoulli Again

  16. The vertical difference between 2 levels of liquid Use FT to measure the pressure exerted by a body of liquid in term of weight Head α Pressure α Energy Velocity Head The distance a liquid would have to fall for a given V Hv = V12/2g Friction Head Hl= f(L/D)(V2/2Zg) where f : friction factor L: Length D: Diameter THE CONCEPT OF “HEAD”

  17. Pressure Head STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD NET STATIC HEAD STATIC SUCTION PRESSURE PUMP

  18. Head required to impart velocity to a liquid Equivalent to the vertical distance through which the liquid would have to fall to acquire the same velocity Equal to V2 / 2g Velocity Head

  19. The force or pressure required to overcome friction is obtained at the expense of the static pressure head Unlike velocity head, friction head cannot be “recovered” or reconverted to static pressure head Thermal energy is usually wasted, therefore resulting in a head loss from the system Friction Head

  20. Centrifugal Pump Scaling “Laws”

  21. Apply to centrifugal (non-positive displacement) pumps only V  N Hp  N2 W  N3 V = volumetric flow rate N = speed of rotation Hp = pump head W = power required (prime mover) More Pump “Laws” . . .

  22. Pump Design Equation – Bernoulli Again

  23. Anatomy of Several Pump Types

  24. Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements DRIVE TYPE (electric motor, steam drive, gear driven, etc…) IMPELLER PUMP SHAFT & Seal DISCHARGE CASING SUCTION

  25. Centrifugal Pump Elements

  26. Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements

  27. Centrifugal and Fan Pump Elements

  28. Centrifugal Pump Elements

  29. “Roots” Blower

  30. Gerotor Pump

  31. Vane Pump

  32. Small Silicon Micro-Compressor Design Concept

  33. MEMS Magnetically Actuated Micropump

  34. Single and double Acting Piston Pumps

  35. Archimedes Screw Pump

  36. Multiple Screw Pump

  37. Conical Drag Pump

  38. Tesla “Drag” Pump

  39. Drag or Pos. Displacement “Screw” Pump

  40. Small Spiral “Viscous Drag” Pump

  41. Examples of Small Commercially Available and “Academic Research” Pumps Fans and Blowers

  42. Typical “Micro-Blower”

  43. Typical Double Fan Blower

  44. Typical Fan based “Micro-Blower”

  45. Small Sunon Blower

  46. Small Sunon Blower - Continued

  47. High Volume - Low Pressure - Centrifugal Blower

  48. Micro-Vacuum Products

  49. Small Blower – Mesoscopics, Inc.

  50. Small Blower – Mesoscopics, Inc.