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CH 5 Section 4-5

CH 5 Section 4-5

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CH 5 Section 4-5

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  1. CH 5 Section 4-5

  2. IV.RISE OF CHRISTIANITY (Pg 166) *Constantine*--1st Roman emperor to convert to Christianity A. Early Empire Include Diverse Religions 1. Rome Tolerates Diversity a. Polytheism & Monotheism coexisted

  3. 2. Divisions Arise in Judea a. Roman rule of Judea i. Jews excused from worshiping Roman gods

  4. b. Strict Judaism in Judea i. Zealots—wanted revolt from Rome ii. Waiting for the Messiah*

  5. 3. A Jewish Rebellion is Defeated a. Romans destroyed much of Jerusalem =many Jews left Judea(=the Diaspora)

  6. The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem, by David Roberts(1850)

  7. 1. Jesus Begins Preaching—in Judea a. A descendent of King David b. Grew up Jewish c. His 12 disciples, or apostles* d. =message spread to Jerusalem Sermon on the Mount,illustration by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 19th c.

  8. The 12 Disciples at the Last Supper

  9. B. Jesus Proclaims His Teachings -teachings written in Gospels=first 4 books of New Testament bible (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John)

  10. 2. Jesus Teaches New Beliefs a. Messiah (son of God=savior of man)=”Christ” b. Salvation, eternal life to his followers

  11. 3. Condemned to Death a. Jewish priests felt threatened by Jesus b. =crucifixion

  12. 4. Unique Aspects of Jesus’ Teachings: --the Trinity --son of God --Messiah --Need for justice --salvation --Forgiveness of sins --love all --Communion --New Testament --Sunday Sabbath --love God with whole heart --all EQUAL in eyes of God

  13. The Teaching of Christ—Video Clip

  14. C. Message of Christianity Spreads ( by apostles) 1. Paul* Spreads Christianity a. Helped to begin separate religion of Christianity through his traveling & preaching

  15. 2. Christians Are Oppressed a. Punished & executed by Romans = martyrs* Examples: Peter & Paul Peter=1st Christian Pope, crucified upside down in Rome on the site that would become the Vatican “though art Peter & upon this rock I will build my church”—Matthew 16: 13-20

  16. 3. The Message Appeals to Many a. Appeal to the poor due to message that “all are equal in God’s eyes” b. Salvation c. Used Roman roads to travel through empire spreading Christianity

  17. Roman Roads

  18. 4. Rome Accepts Christianity a. Emperor Constantine* (313AD) 1. Edict of Milan*=freedom of worship to all citizens of Rome Spread of Christianity to AD 325   Spread of Christianity to AD 600

  19. Constantine

  20. D. The Early Christian Church Develops 1. Early Christian Communities Shared: a. Faith in Jesus’ teachings b. Common way of worship c. Worshipped in secrecy d. Executed if found

  21. Romans fed Christian to lions at the Colosseum

  22. Roman Catacombs

  23. 2. Joining the Church a. Appealed to people (+s): i. Equality ii. Sacraments= Baptism, Eucharist (communion), Marriage, Last Rites iii. Sunday Sabbath

  24. 3. Structuring the Clergy a. Pope/Patriarch* Bishop Bishop Bishop Diocese Diocese Diocese =priest & community

  25. 4. Differences Arise Within the Church a. Battle of the Popes b. Heresy* The Sixth Commandment: Thou shalt not kill. (Exodus 20:13)

  26. 5. Scholars Further Define Christianity a.Clement b.Origen c. Augustine—combined Christian doctrine w/ learning of Greco-Roman learning (Plato)

  27. Christianity Spreads in Roman Empire

  28. V. THE LONG DECLINE • A. The Roman Empire Divides

  29. 1. Threats: a. Economic problems b. Foreign invasion c. Decline of traditional Roman values d. End of Pax Romana 180AD 1. w/death of emperor Marcus Aurelius

  30. Rome—at end of Pax Romana= 56 million people!

  31. 2. Political Violence Becomes Common a. Emperors overthrown=instability 3. Social & Economic Problems Arise a. High taxes (1 in 3 were slaves) b. Oppressive govt c. Over-farmed land=not enough food, high prices

  32. 4. Emperor Diocletian* Shares Power a. He divided empire based on geography: WestEast Maximian Diocletian Rome Constantinople declining growing Latin language Greek language =poorer =wealthier = both weakened

  33. Rome split in half

  34. b. Economic inflation* (prices incomes ) c. Travel restricted d. In cities, sons had to carry on father’s occupation=no choice

  35. 5. Emperor Constantine Makes Further Reforms a. Took throne in 312 AD

  36. b. Reforms: i. Granted toleration to Christians --Edict of Milan in 313AD ii. Created a new capital =Constantinople (today is Istanbul) =Eastern empire w/ more power

  37. 6. Improvements Prove Temporary a. Revived economy =short-term fix b. Increased govt power

  38. B. Invaders Threaten the Roman Empire 1. Migrating Nomads Attack a. The Huns* i. Other German tribes fled from Huns into Roman territory: --Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Lombards

  39. All flee from the Huns

  40. Attila the Huns: “the scourge of God”

  41. 2. Rome is Sacked 378 AD a. Western empire (Rome, Italy) overrun b. Attila the Hun* = the DARK AGES begin

  42. C. Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall 1. Military Attacks a. Invasions: Rome hired unloyal mercenaries* (not enough soldiers so had to hire Barbarians)

  43. 2. Political Turmoil a. More oppressive govt=no support from people b. Corrupt officials c. Civil wars over imperial succession

  44. 3. Economic Weakness a. High taxes: to support army (mercenaries) & govt b. High # of slaves (1 of every 3 people in Rome= a slave=not paying taxes so the rest of the 2/3 had to pay more taxes)

  45. c. Farmers abandoned their land i. Couldn’t pay taxes ii. Not yielding enough food to harvest (overfarmed land)

  46. d. Middle class becomes poor e. Population declines (due to war, disease, starvation)= i. Decreased tax base ii. Decreased supply of soldiers

  47. 4. Social Decay a. Decline in traditional Roman values: i. Patriotism ii. Discipline iii. Devotion to duty & emperor