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AS level Psychology The Core studies

AS level Psychology The Core studies

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AS level Psychology The Core studies

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  1. AS level PsychologyThe Core studies

  2. S J Gould (1982) • A Nation Of Morons? • The misuse of IQ tests

  3. Some background…. • Intelligence is a controversial subject • What is intelligence? • Class suggestions

  4. Some background…. • Two questions that create controversy… • Is INTELLIGENCE inherited? • (The nature / nurture debate) • Can IQ be measured?

  5. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • His book - The mismeasure of man showed how these questions can have large social consequences

  6. The History of IQ testing • First IQ tests developed by Alfred Binet • (France) • These were developed to identify children who needed ‘special’ education - • Binet believed that IQ could be increased by education

  7. The history of IQ testing • Early IQ tests gave estimate of children’s MENTAL age by comparing their performance on various tasks with performance of children at various ages

  8. The history of IQ testing • calculated as • IQ = Mental Age Chronological age x 100 Nowadays NORM referenced.. that is the average performance of a group is calculated, then individual comparison

  9. IQ testing in the USA • In the USA strong supporters of IQ testing were scientists who believed that IQ is MAINLY genetic, and that society should breed a superior group of people • (This is called eugenics)

  10. IQ testing in the USA • Lewis Terman • (Professor of psychology) • (1921 - Stanford University) • If we would preserve our state for a class of people worthy to possess it, we must, as far as possible, prevent the propagation of mental degenerates

  11. IQ testing in the USA • This means that scientists should identify the ‘useless and stupid’ and find some way of preventing them having children • S J Gould’s article - • The mismeasure of man

  12. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • The place - The USA • The time - the outbreak of the great war - (World War 1: 1914 - 1918) • Robert Yerkes - psychologist • persuaded the US military • to administer IQ tests to 1.75 million army recruits

  13. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Three types of tests • The Army Alpha - a written test taken by literate recruits • eight parts - fill in the missing number - unscramble a sentence, etc • some examples • Washington is to Adams as first is to ------- • Crisco is a: patent medicine, disinfectant, toothpaste, food product

  14. S J Gould - A nation of morons • The Army Beta - a pictorial test • for the illiterate or those who failed the Alpha • this test had 7 parts - • including ‘picture completion tasks

  15. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • The third test was a spoken test - • supposed to be administered to those who failed the Alpha and the Beta

  16. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • YERKES said that: • These tests measure • NATIVE INTELLECTUAL ABILITY • in other words intelligence which was unaffected by culture or educational opportunities

  17. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Gould reports many problems in the administration of the tests • Illiterate men were allocated to the Alpha • The queues for the Beta became so long that some men were reallocated to the Alpha • Many who failed the Alpha were never recalled

  18. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • The BETA test still required men to use pencils and paper - and many had never been educated at all • Gould suggests that all the results should be viewed with scepticism • (doubt and disbelief)

  19. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • However the results were used by the army and had great impact - mental testing became….. • ‘scientifically established’ • by 1921 commercial and educational establishments were using the tests

  20. The creation of 3 ‘so called facts’ • ‘FACT 1’ • The average mental age of white American adults stood at 13 … this is just above the level of moronity

  21. The creation of 3 ‘so called facts’ • ‘Fact 2’ • It was possible to grade European immigrants by their country of origin • The fair people of Northern & Western Europe higher than the Slavs of Eastern Europe who were higher than dark people of southern Europe

  22. The creation of 3 ‘so called facts’ • ‘Fact 3’ • Black people scored lowest of all • These ‘facts’ were used to provide a genetic explanation for the differences

  23. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Carl Brigham (Yerkes colleague) • Explained the differences in terms of racial superiority • “we notice the Einsteins of the world BECAUSE they are exceptional for their Jewish race”

  24. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • However this arguments is opposed by 2 arguments • FIRSTLY • Immigration from different parts of Europe took place at different times • The most recent immigrants scored worse on the written tests .. If native IQ was being measured ‘written English should have NO effect

  25. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • SECONDLY • Test scores rose with length of stay in the USA evidencing a cultural bias • Those who had been in the USA longer were more familiar with American customs & products

  26. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Brigham • argued that it was a sign of intelligence to emigrate to the USA and that the brightest came sooner!! • Later immigrants were progressively more stupid

  27. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Despite the evidence IQ tests took hold • 1924 US Congress passed the Immigration Restriction Act • The Act set quotas for immigration to the US based on figures 30 years earlier when immigration from Southern & Eastern Europe was low

  28. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Gould called this - • A victory for scientific racism • During the next 20 years conditions in eastern Europe worsened for Slavs and Jews • (The Nazi years)

  29. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Gould estimates that • Immigration quotas barred up to 6 million people from entering the USA

  30. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • There is STILL • No good evidence to suggest that IQ differences are the result of genetic differences

  31. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • There is STILL • No clear operational definition of intelligence • Both race and IQ are political rather than biological facts • (Socially constructed)

  32. S J Gould - A Nation of Morons • Things to do - • Identify some cultural or educational bias in the Beta test items on your example • in the Alpha test • Washington is to Adams as first is to ------- • What is the answer and why is this culturally biased?

  33. S J Gould (1982) • What about our little IQ test? • Class discussion • Now do the short answer questions

  34. S J Gould (1982) • METHODOLOGY? • This was a review article taken from a book entitled - • The Mismeasure of Man

  35. S J Gould - A nation of Morons THE END