What do we know? • On this date in history . . . • Now that you’ve taken your first unit assessment, what did you learn? • What was the ‘right’ answer? • Where do we go from here? • Homework: Prepare for the reassessment or chill.
1908 - Ford Model T – the Tin Lizzie 1910 – LA Times building bombed 1962 – James Howard Meredith – registered at the University of Mississippi
1971 – Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, FL, opens 1982 – Epcot opens 1962 – first broadcast with Johnny Carson 1982 – Cyanide Poisoning 1976 – Swine Flu Fever instigates largest immunization effort
What did you learn? • Knowing what your know now, what pieces of advice would you give yourself? • How will you prepare next time? The same? Differently?
Explain three contributions the Greeks and three contributions the Romans made to democracy using the following terms – government, democracy, aristocracy, citizen, direct democracy, republic, senate, Solon, Cleisthenes, Pericles and Justinian. Greeks Romans Twelve Tables – laws were written down Republic – democratic gov’t through reps Senate – reps based on wealth Emperor Justinian four new volumes of law, precedents and instruction on how to use it • Solon – first Athenian to set the stage • classes based on wealth not heredity • outlawed slavery based on debt • Citizen = free adult male • Council of 400 • Cleisthenes – father of democracy • Council of 500 • citizens could submit laws • Pericles – ruled during the Golden Age • paid public officials to be in office; paid jury members to serve
Explain two contributions the traditions and teachings of Judaism, Christianity and Islam each made to democracy. • Judaism • believed that God wished for them to live moral lives • believed that each individual had a divine spark and dignity simply by being a child of God • believed human beings had moral freedom - the capacity to choose between good and evil • Ten Commandments • Christianity (Xtianity) • New Testament included Jesus’s teachings about how to treat fellow human beings • stressed the essential equality of all human beings, a belief central to democracy • Islam • emphasized the dignity of all human beings, brotherhood of people • religion requires followers to give to charity and to help those in need • rulers are to obey the same laws as those they rule
Using the following explain the ‘evolution’ of democracy as experienced by the English. • Magna Carta (1215) • King John signed it and monarchs had to acknowledge that there are laws that must be followed • Model Parliament (1295) • first representative body that consults and gives advice to the monarchy • execution of King Charles I (1649) • the monarchy is not in complete control • unjust rulers will be ‘dealt with’ • the Habeas Corpus Act (1679) • said that citizens had the right to know why they were being arrested • the accused have rights • the establishment of a constitutional monarchy (1689) • monarchs must follow and obey the law • the English Bill of Rights (1689) • citizens have rights and the government must acknowledge and protect those rights
Explain the contributions to democratic philosophy each of these Enlightenment thinkers made - • Thomas Hobbes • wrote Leviathan • people are greedy and selfish and need an authoritarian gov’t to control them • John Locke • wrote Two Treatises of Government • people are reasonable and tolerant • people should be free to practice their religion • the right to’ life, health, liberty, or possessions’ • Voltaire • freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state • advocate for social reform • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • wrote The Social Contract • people should be in direct control of their gov’t • Baron de Montesquieu • wrote The Spirit of the Laws • emphasized the 3 branches of the gov’t – the separation of power
For each of the next . . . • questions in section three, you must first include the information mentioned in section two. • THEN, you add the information on the following slides.
Comparing and Contrasting the Greeks and Romans to the US system of governing – Which characteristic of the government under the Roman Republic had the greatest impact on the democratic tradition as we experience it today in the US? Which characteristic under Greek rule? Greek Roman Republic Written Law US Constitution State Constitutions • Council of 400/500 • Senate and House of Representatives • Citizens could submit laws • Propositions in CA • Paying public officials • US President - $400,000 • US Senator - $174,000
While Thomas Jefferson famously wrote of a “wall of separation between church and state,” religious tradition obviously influenced the writing of government laws. How does a democratic government, like the US, balance that tradition? • Democracy’s strength lies in its people. • US Constitution – First Amendment • freedom of religion • Federal laws that prohibit murder • 14th Amendment – Due Process Clause – all citizens must be treated equally before the law • Civil Rights Acts and 19th Amendment – extended the right to vote to all adults • Public schools may not preach that one religion is better, but they may teach about any religion.
The Enlightenment thinkers wrote about the different ways they thought society should be governed. They were influenced by the time and place in which they lived and the natural laws of the Scientific Revolution they studied. Briefly explain how each of the five ‘thinkers’ were influenced by their experience and what philosophical conclusions they came to because of it. • Hobbes lived during England’s civil war and the Commonwealth under a dictator, Oliver Cromwell. • Locke lived during the restoration of the monarchy and the ongoing struggle to determine just how much authority monarchs had. • Voltaire lived during the reigns of absolute monarchs in France just prior to the French Revolution. • Rousseau was greatly influenced by both Britain, France and his own home in Switzerland living during the time period just before the American and French Revolution. • Montesquieu was a contemporary of Voltaire and consequently had the same influences.