Skipshopphugging – gjeldende og fremtidig internasjonalt rammeverk Sveinung Oftedal seniorrådgiver
Opphugging av skip – Hvordan ble det en norsk sak? • 1997 – Avisen ”Baltimore Sun” fikk Pulizer prisen • 1998 – Bergens Tidende reportasje fra Alang-India:«Sykdom, ulykker og brutal død følger i kjølvannet når utrangerte norske skip strander på verdens største skipsopphuggingsplass» • Statsråden (MD) internasjonal løsning i IMO
Ble fulgt opp av: Kartlegging • Veritasrapporten (MD/NR/MARMIL)Decommissioning of Ships - Environmental Protection and Ship Demolition Practices • India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kina har 90% • Boom kommer • Mange miljøfarlige stoffer -håndteres uforsvarlig • Ulfsteinrapporten (MD)Legal Aspects of Scrapping of Ships • Gjeldende rett er ikke tilstrekkelig • IMO-løsning anbefales • Grunnlag for håndhevelse av gjeldende rett (SFT kontroll)
Internasjonal aktivitet • 1999 – Norsk dokument til IMOs miljøkomite (MEPC 43) om å ta inn saken på IMOs arbeidsprogram • 1999 – Norge tok opp saken i Baselkonvensjonen • Også på ILOs agenda • CSD 7 pekte mot IMO som koordinerende organisasjon • 2002-2004: 3 sett med retningslinjer
The 3-set UN Guidelines • Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships (Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, 13 Dec. 2002, Decision VI/24); • IMO Guidelines on Ship Recycling (twenty-third session of the Assembly, 5 December 2003 Resolution A.962(23); and • Safety and Health in Shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and Turkey, approved by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office (289th session, March 2004).
Frivillige retningslinjer var ikke tilstrekkelig • 24th Session of IMO Assembly adopted Resolution A.981(24) in December 2005 and agreed to request:” the Marine Environment Protection Committee to develop a new legally-binding instrument on ship recycling….” • Target date:consideration and adoption of the instrument in the biennium 2008-2009
A.981(24) - The Instrument • …provide regulations for:”.1 the design, construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling, without compromising the safety and operational efficiency of ships; .2 the operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and environmentally sound manner; and.3 the establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship recycling (certification/reporting requirements);”
Gjeldende rett • Baselkonvensjonen – Grenseoverskridende transport av farlig avfall • Vedtatt i 1989 • I kraft i 1992 • 170 parter • To hovedprinsipper: Prior Informed Concent (PIC), and Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) • BAN amendment (1995) forbyr eksport av farlig avfall fra OECD land til ikke-OECD land. Endringen er ikke i kraft, men gjennomført i EU rett og norsk rett. • EUs transportfordning (Regulation (EEC) No 259/93), etterfulgt av Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006) implementerer Baselkonvensjonen inkludert BAN-amendment • F-loven/avfallsforskriften
Gjeldende rett (Basel)- hovedbudskap • Partene til Baselkonvensjonen har ikke foretatt en omforent klargjøring av hvordan skip omfattes av baselkonvensjonen. • EU og Norge: Skip omfattes • Tre nøkkelbegrep: ”Waste”, ”State of export”, ”transboundary movement”. • Skip defineres som avfall når rederen foretar beslutningen om å hugge opp skipet (”discarded” ”waste” • ”State of export”. Mange muligheter vedr. skip, men i Baselkonvensjonen knyttes begrepet til hvor skipet var når beslutningen som gjorde skipet til avfall ble truffet. • ”Transboundary movement”. Mange muligheter vedrørende skip. • Konklusjon: Skipet må ikke være i en norsk havn før det skal til opphugging i India.
Gjeldende rett - Skipssikkerhetsloven Kapittel 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet § 36 Skip som tas endelig ut av drift ”Et skip som skal tas endelig ut av drift skal håndteres på en forsvarlig måte, slik at det ikke oppstår fare for liv, helse eller miljø. Departementet kan gi nærmere forskrift om kravene i første ledd, herunder om meldeplikt og om fjerning av skadelige stoffer om bord.”
The draft Convention • Norway submitted a first draft of a new free-standing Convention to MEPC 54 (March 2006). • Present negotiations on the basis of that proposal. • The draft Convention intends to • solve the identified problem, • set out requirements which can be implemented by industry, and • enforced by authorities, • contain no loopholes, and • be attractive for ratification in order to enter rapid into force.
!!!Please note that this presentation informs on a Convention which is under development. The draft Convention presented at this seminar is expected to be further developed towards the Conference which will adopt the final instrument.!!!
Compliance throughout all phases Completed App. 30 years Ship operation Ship design an construction Recycling Preparation for recycling
The draft Convention – Structure Preamble Articles ” establish the main legal mechanisms “ Explicit amendment procedure Regulations – ” contains technical requirements” Chapter 2 Tacit amendment procedure Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Part A, B and C Appendices – ”contains forms for certificates etc” Guidelines – ”mainly procedures to assist the requirements”
Some main principles • Treats all Parties equally (at present) • No more favourable treatment clause • Non-application for warships (UNCLOS Article 236) • A survey and certification regime for ships • An authorization regime for recycling facilities • A system for control, exchange of information, communication of information, reporting and auditing implementation to ensure a high and efficient level of control.
The Convention – Article 3 Application • Applies to ships entitled to fly the flag of a Party • applies to ship recycling facilities operating under the jurisdiction of a Party • Do not apply to warships etc. (UNCLOS art. 236) • Do not apply to ships below 500 GTHowever, Parties shall adopt measures ensuring that ships act in a manner consistant with the Convention, as far as reasonable and practicable. • No more favourable treatment of non-Party ships
Fundamental obligation of a Party&Fundamental right of a Party • Fundamental obligation: • Ensure compliance by its ships by survey and certification (Article 5) • Ensure compliance by its ship recycling facilities by authorization (Article 6) • Fundamental rights: • To inspect ships in its ports (PSC) (Article 8) • To be informed on the basis for the authorization of facilities (by other parties) (Article 7)
A comprehensive system for detection of violations and follow-up actions • Article 9 and 10: • Co-operation among Parties • Investigation and gathering of evidence • Initiate proceedings • Information to Parties involved • Establish sanctions which are adequate in severity to discourage violations of the Convention
Certified ship seeks authorized facility …should find a recycling facility authorized to recycle that ship A ship designed, constructed, operated and prepared for recycling in accordance with the Convention... Authorized Recycling Facility CertifiedShip Regulation 8 (2): ” If the recycling facility is authorized to handle the hazardous materials identified in the Inventory prior removal shall not be required unless the recycling facility decides otherwise when preparing the Ship Recycling Plan. …..”
Chain of documentation ensures compliance ”From cradle to grave” International Certificate for a Ship Inventory of Hazardous Materials* International Ready for Recycling Certificate Form of the Authorization of Recycling Facilities • Inventory of Hazardous Materials Part I (Ships’ structure and equipment) • Ensure that prohibited materials are not used • Inventory Part I, Part II (operationally generated wastes) and Part III (stores) • Ship Recycling Plan • identifies the capabilities of the facility • Recycling Facility Management Plan Statement of Completion * Different requirements for new and old ships
The Convention – The regulations • Outlined in the Annex to the Convention: • Chapter 1 General provisions • Chapter 2 Requirements for ships • Part A Design, construction, operation and maintenance of ships • Part B Preparation for ship recycling • Part C Surveys and certification • Chapter 3 Requirements for ship Recycling facilities • Chapter 4 Reporting Requirements
Chapter 2 – Requirements for Ships Part A – Design, Construction and maintenance of ships • Regulation 4 Controls of ships’ hazardous materialsProhibition and/or restriction on ships and at ports and yards (appendix 1) • Regulation 7 Inventory of Hazardous materialsInventory of Hazardous Materials (part I) approved by the Administration. Difference between new and existing ships
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B - Preparation for ship recycling • Regulation 8 General requirements • Choose a facility authorized to recycle your ship • Provide the facility with the relevant information, complete the inventory and aquire the ready for recycling certificate • Regulation 9 Recycling Plan • Be developed by the ship recycling facility in consultation with the shipowner; • in the language accepted by the Party of the facility and if its not English, French or Spanish, the plan shall be translated into one of these languages.
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B – Surveys and certification • Regulation 11 Surveys • initial survey; for new ships: before the ship enters into service, for existing ships: before the inventory is issued; • periodical surveys, on the basis of a five yearly cycle, verifying continuing compliance with the Convention and ensuring that any relevant alterations are reflected on the inventory; • additional surveys, which the shipowner may request to take place at his option after alterations to the structure, machinery or equipment of the ship; and • a final survey prior to the ship being taken out of service, so that all three Parts of the inventory are completed and checked, the Recycling Plan is examined and checked against the inventory, and the Ready for Recycling Certificate is issued. • Surveys may be conducted by officers of the flag Administration, or by surveyors nominated by the Administration, or by surveyors of a Recognized Organization.
Chapter 2 Requirements for Ships Part B – Surveys and certification • Regulation 12 Issuance and endorsement of certificates • International Certificate for a ship Inventory of Hazardous Materials; for new ships: before the ship enters into service for the first time, for existing ships: shall be issued following the survey for the first renewal of the [Safety Construction] Certificate after the entry into force of the Convention; • International Ready for recycling Certificate, shall be issued after the final survey.
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (1) • Regulation 16 Controls on ship recycling facilitiesAdresses the system a Party has to establish regarding controls on ship recycling facilities, e.g. legislation • Regulation 17 Authorization of ship recycling facilitiesAdresses the system for authorization of ship recycling facilities. Verification of documentation and site inspection. Includes a possibility for delegation to a RO, and addresses period the authorization is valid. • Regulation 18 General RequirementsThe facility shall only recycle ships it is authorized for. Have the documentation available
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (2) • Regulation 19 Recycling Facility Management PlanSets out requirements for a management plan which i.a. includes: • Identification of roles and responsibilities • A programme for training of workers • An emergency preparedness and response plan • monitoring and record keeping • Regulation 20 Prevention of accidentsAdresses i.a. establishing procedures for ensuring ”gas-free-for-hot-work” conditions • Regulation 21 Safe and environmentally sound removal and management of hazardous materialsIncludes the general requirement and specific provisions for specific materials. The requirements do not go beyond the facility
Chapter 3 – Requirements for ship recycling facilities (3) • Regulation 22 Emergency preparedness and responseA plan and specific requirements • Regulation 23 Worker safety and trainingTraining programme and specific requirements for personal protective equipment • Regulation 24 Reporting on incidents and chronic effectsReporting on incidents to the competent authority and information on response action taken
Appendices • Controls of hazardous materials 1. Controls of Hazardous Materials 2. Inventory of Hazardous Materials • Forms of relevant Certificates and other documents 3. Form of the International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials. 4. Form of the International Ready for Recycling Certificate. 5. Form of the authorization of recycling facilities. 6. Form of the Statement of Completion of the Ship Recycling. 7. Reporting forms [to be developed].
Draft list of Guidelines to the Convention 1. Guidelines for the Inventory of Hazardous Materials. 2. Guidelines for Survey and Certification 3. Guidelines for Inspection of Ships 4. Guidelines for the Authorization of Ship Recycling Facilities 5. Guidelines for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Ship Recycling 6. Guidelines for the Development of the Ship Recycling Plan
Fundamentale punkter som må avklares • The issue of for the recycling of ships flying the flag of a Party State in recycling facilities of a State which is not a Party, if that facility can demonstrate in an acceptable way that it is capable to recycle ships in a safe and environmentally sound manner • the idea of establishing a “transitional period clause” • a new proposal for reporting requirements (an opt. in for explicit acceptance)
Fremtidig juridisk regime • Observasjon: Eksisterende og fremtidig internasjonalt regime har ulik tilnærming • Våren 2009 - Vedtakelse av ny IMO-konvensjon • 2009+Klargjøring av eksisterende juridisk rammeverk (Baselkonvensjonen/EUs transportforordning) • Hjemmel for fremtidige forskrifter er tatt inn skipssikkerhetslovens kap 5 Miljømessig sikkerhet § 36 • En dag i fremtiden - ikrafttredelse av ny IMO konvensjon (med Norge som part….)