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a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth. PowerPoint Presentation
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a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth.

a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth.

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a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth.

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  1. Question 1 Constellations appear to move across the sky at night because a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth. e) the Earth spins on its axis.

  2. Question 1 Question 1 What motion is responsible for the apparent motion of the constellations (east to west) across the sky? 1) the motion of Earth around the Sun 2) the motion of the Moon around Earth 3) the motion of Mars around the Sun 4) the motion of the constellations around Earth 5) the spinning of Earth on its axis Constellations appear to move across the sky at night because a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth. e) the Earth spins on its axis. The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars all rise and set because our planet rotates once each day.

  3. Question 2 a) Wobble of Earth’s rotation axis b) the greenhouse effect c) 23.5° tilt of Earth’s rotational axis d) movement of Earth closer to or farther from the Sun e) global warming and cooling What causes Earth’s seasons?

  4. Question 2 a) Wobble of Earth’s rotation axis b) the greenhouse effect c) 23.5° tilt of Earth’s rotational axis d) movement of Earth closer to or farther from the Sun e) global warming and cooling What causes Earth’s seasons? Our planet’s tilt, and not its changing distance from the Sun, creates seasons.

  5. Question 3 a) the celestial equator b) the north celestial pole c) the Milky Way d) the zodiac e) the ecliptic What is the path thatthe Sun, Moon, and planets follow through the constellations?

  6. Question 3 a) the celestial equator b) the north celestial pole c) the Milky Way d) the zodiac e) the ecliptic What is the path thatthe Sun, Moon, and planets follow through the constellations? The ecliptic also marks the plane of Earth’s orbit around the Sun.

  7. Question 4 a) one hour b) one day c) one month d) one year e) one decade How long does it take the Sun to complete one circuit of the ecliptic?

  8. Question 4 1) one hour 2) one day 3) one month 4) one year 5) one decade How long does it take the Sun to complete one circuit of the ecliptic? The Sun moves around the ecliptic once as the Earth orbits in one year.

  9. Question 5 a) one day b) one hour c) one week d) one month e) one year How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic?

  10. Question 5 a) one day b) one hour c) one week d) one month e) one year How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic? The Moon orbits Earth in a month, and passes in front of the constellations of the zodiac, which are arranged around the ecliptic.

  11. Question 6 a) physically close to each other. b) usually equal in brightness. c) about the same age. d) about the same distance away. e) in the same part of the sky. Stars in a constellation are

  12. Question 6 a) physically close to each other. b) usually equal in brightness. c) about the same age. d) about the same distance away. e) in the same part of the sky. Stars in a constellation are Stars within a constellation might be very different distances, ages, types, and brightnesses.

  13. Question 7 a) during the new moon phase. b) when the Sun blocks the Moon. c) during the full moon phase. d) always around the summer solstice. A total lunar eclipse occurs

  14. Question 7 a) during the new moon phase. b) when the Sun blocks the Moon. c) during the full moon phase. d) always around the summer solstice. A total lunar eclipse occurs

  15. Question 8 a) summer. b) fall. c) winter. d) spring. The vernal equinox marks the beginning of

  16. Question 8 a) summer. b) fall. c) winter. d) spring. The vernal equinox marks the beginning of The vernal equinox occurs around March 21–22.

  17. Question 9 a) every month at new moon. b) every week at the quarter phases. c) every month at full moon. d) about every six months at new moon. e) every year at new moon. A solar eclipse happens

  18. Question 9 a) every month at new moon. b) every week at the quarter phases. c) every month at full moon. d) about every six months at new moon. e) every year at new moon. A solar eclipse happens

  19. Question 10 a) distances to stars increase. b) the baseline gets larger. c) the baseline gets smaller. d) the Earth moves faster in its orbit. The angle of parallax increases as

  20. Question 10 a) distances to stars increase. b) the baseline gets larger. c) the baseline gets smaller. d) the Earth moves faster in its orbit. The angle of parallax increases as The greater the distance between two observation points (the baseline), the larger the angle of parallax.

  21. Question 11 a) the same phase in 24 hours. b) different phases in 24 hours. c) a lunar eclipse once a month. d) different sides of the Moon. Considering the Moon’s phases, everyone on Earth sees

  22. Question 11 a) the same phase in 24 hours. b) different phases in 24 hours. c) a lunar eclipse once a month. d) different sides of the Moon. Considering the Moon’s phases, everyone on Earth sees The Moon goes through its cycle of phases in about 30 days; the Earth rotates once in only 24 hours. So everyone has a chance to see the same phase!

  23. Question 1 a) planets move on epicycles. b) planets orbit the Sun in the same direction. c) Earth moves faster in its orbit. d) they are closer than Uranus. e) they rotate quickly on their axes. Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn show retrograde motionbecause

  24. Question 1 a) planets move on epicycles. b) planets orbit the Sun in the same direction. c) Earth moves faster in its orbit. d) they are closer than Uranus. e) they rotate quickly on their axes. Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn show retrograde motionbecause As Earth overtakes and “passes” the outer planets, they seem to slow down and then reverse direction.

  25. Question 2 a) The Earth rotated. b) The Sun rotated. c) The geocentric model couldn’t account for day and night. d) The Earth revolved around the Sun. e) The Sun orbited Earth. How did the geocentric model account for day and night on Earth?

  26. Question 2 a) The Earth rotated. b) The Sun rotated. c)The geocentric model couldn’t account for day and night. d) The Earth revolved around the Sun. e)The Sun orbited Earth. How did the geocentric model account for day and night on Earth? The geocentric model held that the Earth was motionless in the center of the universe.

  27. Question 3 a) why planets moved in the sky. b) why Earth was at the center. c) why retrograde motion occurred. d) why Earth wobbled on its axis. e) why inner planets were always seen near the Sun. Epicycles were used in Ptolemy’s model to explain

  28. Question 3 a) why planets moved in the sky. b) why Earth was at the center. c) why retrograde motion occurred. d) why Earth wobbled on its axis. e) why inner planets were always seen near the Sun. . Epicycles were used in Ptolemy’s model to explain Planets were assumed to move uniformly on an epicycle, as it moved uniformly around Earth.

  29. Question 4 a) stars don’t seem to show any parallax. b) we don’t feel as though Earth moves. c) objects fall toward Earth, not the Sun. d) we don’t see an enormous wind. e) All of the above were valid reasons. The geocentric model was supported by Aristotle because

  30. Question 4 a) stars don’t seem to show any parallax. b) we don’t feel as though Earth moves. c) objects fall toward Earth, not the Sun. d) we don’t see an enormous wind. e) All of the above were valid reasons. The geocentric model was supported by Aristotle because Aristotle thought that if the Earth rotated and orbited, we would feel its motion. In Aristotle’s time, the size of the solar system and distances to stars were assumed to be much, much smaller. Parallax was expected to be seen.

  31. Question 5 a) planets move on epicycles. b) Earth is the center of the solar system. c) the stars move on the celestial sphere. d) the Sun is the center of the solar system. e) Earth’s axis wobbles over 26,000 years. The heliocentricmodel assumes

  32. Question 5 1) planets move on epicycles. 2) Earth is the center of the solar system. 3) the stars move on the celestial sphere. 4) the Sun is the center of the solar system. 5) Earth’s axis wobbles over 26,000 years. The heliocentricmodel assumes Heliocentric models proposed by Aristarchus and others were considered wrong by Aristotle and his followers.

  33. Question 6 a) proving planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits. b) the theory of gravity. c) proposing a simpler model for the motions of planets in the solar system. d) discovering the Sun was not at the center of the Milky Way. e) discovering the four moons of Jupiter. Copernicus’ important contribution to astronomy was

  34. Question 6 a) proving planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits. b) the theory of gravity. c) proposing a simpler model for the motions of planets in the solar system. d) discovering the Sun was not at the center of the Milky Way. e) discovering the four moons of Jupiter. Copernicus’ important contribution to astronomy was His heliocentric model easily explained retrograde motion because planets orbited the Sun at different speeds.

  35. Question 7 Copernicus’ heliocentric model was flawed because a) he assumed planets moved in ellipses. b) he didn’t know about Uranus & Neptune. c) he couldn’t account for gravity. d) he couldn’t explain retrograde motion. e) he assumed planets moved in circles.

  36. Question 7 Copernicus’ heliocentric model was flawed because a) he assumed planets moved in ellipses. b) he didn’t know about Uranus & Neptune. c) he couldn’t account for gravity. d) he couldn’t explain retrograde motion. e) he assumed planets moved in circles. Copernicus’ model still needed small epicycles to account for observed changes in planetary speeds.

  37. Question 8 a) Hipparchus b) Galileo c) Tycho d) Copernicus e) Kepler Who published the first astronomical observations made with a telescope?

  38. Question 8 a) Hipparchus b) Galileo c) Tycho d) Copernicus e) Kepler Who published the first astronomical observations made with a telescope? Galileo published the “Starry Messenger” in 1610, detailing his observations of the Moon, Jupiter’s moons, stars, and nebulae.

  39. Question 9 a) craters on the Moon b) sunspots c) lunar maria d) satellites of Jupiter e) stars of the Milky Way Which of Galileo’s initial observations was most challenging to established geocentric beliefs?

  40. Question 9 a) craters on the Moon b) sunspots c) lunar maria d) satellites of Jupiter e) stars of the Milky Way Which of Galileo’s initial observations was most challenging to established geocentric beliefs? Seeing four moons clearly move around Jupiter disproved that everything orbited Earth and showed Earth could orbit the Sun and not lose its moon, too.

  41. Question 10 a) Kepler b) Newton c) Galileo d) Tycho Brahe e) Copernicus Which hero of the Renaissancepostulated three “laws” of planetary motion?

  42. Question 10 a) Kepler b) Newton c) Galileo d) Tycho Brahe e) Copernicus Which hero of the Renaissancepostulated three “laws” of planetary motion? Note that Isaac Newton is also well known for three general laws of motion. But Kepler’s laws are about objects in orbits, like planets orbiting a star.

  43. Question 11 a) planets orbit the Sun. b) orbits are noncircular. c) orbits are elliptical in shape. d) All of the above are stated. Kepler’s 1st lawof planetary orbits states that

  44. Question 11 a) planets orbit the Sun. b) orbits are noncircular. c) orbits are elliptical in shape. d) All of the above are stated. Kepler’s 1st lawof planetary orbits states that Kepler’s laws apply to all orbiting objects. The Moon orbits Earth in an ellipse, and the Space Shuttle orbits Earth in an ellipse, too.

  45. Question 12 • Earth orbits slower in January. • Earth orbits faster in January. • Earth’s orbital speed doesn’t change. Earth is closer to the Sun in January. From this fact, Kepler’s 2nd law tells us

  46. Faster Slower Question 12 • Earth orbits slower in January. • Earth orbits faster in January. • Earth’s orbital speed doesn’t change. Earth is closer to the Sun in January. From this fact, Kepler’s 2nd law tells us Kepler’s 2nd law means that a planet moves faster when closer to its star.

  47. Question 13 • speed. • period. • shape. • velocity. Kepler’s 3rd law relates a planet’s distance from the Sun and its orbital

  48. Question 13 • speed. • period. • shape. • velocity. Kepler’s 3rd law relates a planet’s distance from the Sun and its orbital Venus’ period = 225 days Venus’ axis = 0.7 AU Kepler’s 3rd law P2 = a3 means more distant planets orbit more slowly. Earth’s period = 365 days Earth’s axis = 1.0 AU

  49. Question 14 a) increases with distance. b) depends on the state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). c) can be attractive or repulsive. d) increases with mass. Newton’s law of gravitystates that the force between two objects

  50. Question 14 a) increases with distance. b) depends on the state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). c) can be attractive or repulsive. d) increases with mass. Newton’s law of gravitystates that the force between two objects The attractive force of gravity INCREASES with greater mass, and DECREASES QUICKLY with greater distance. The force doesn’t depend on the kind of matter.