“Nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too… I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds like vermin” -Hitler
The War Begins! • WW II began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939. • Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. • Hitler’s and Stalin’s Non-Aggression Pact kept them from fighting each other. • France and Britain enter to defend Poland “The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact
“Blitzkrieg” • In German blitzkrieg means “lightning war”. • Hitler used blitzkrieg during his invasion of Poland. • Blitzkrieg included surprise attacks, rapid advances into enemy territory, and massive air attacks that struck and shocked the enemy. • Germany achieved most of its victories in World War II with the Blitzkrieg tactic.
“Phony War” • Britain sent troops to wait with the French down behind the Maginot Line. • Reporters called this quiet time of not much action the “phony war”
Maginot Line • The Maginot Line was a defensive for France against an invasion of Germany. • The Maginot Line was established after World War I. • The line showed to be little use in 1940 when Germany invaded France for the third time.
“Blitzkrieg: German soldiers being parachuted into Holland - May 10, 1940”
Miracle at Dunkirk • The event at Dunkirk is called a miracle because the retreating allies had lost hope and then the British pulled through for them and rescued 338,000 men.
Early Axis Triumphs • In April 1940 the quiet time of the war exploded into action. • Hitler launched a series of blitzkrieg. • Norway and and Denmark both fell. • Germany had overrun the Netherlands and Belgium. • Germany along with Italy forced France to surrender.
June 22, 1940 • On June 22, 1940 France signs an armistice with Germany in occupied France. • An armistice is a cease fire or a truce. • The Franco-German Armistice divided France into two zones. One zone was under German military occupation and the other was under French control. • In 1942 Germans occupied all of France
Summer-Fall 1940: Battle of Britain • Germany does not invade; instead bombing
“ We will defend this island whatever the cost!” -- Winston Churchill
“Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” --Winston Churchill 1940 on the pilots of the RAF during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz
The War in Europe • Hitler turns to the Soviet Union • Part of Hitler’s overall plan • Invade Russia b/c the Germans would need their wheat and Oil • Stalin warned of German attack but did not listen
The War in Europe • Hitler invades Soviet Union June 22, 1941 • Operation Barbarosa • Stalin taken by surprise
January 1941: Lend-Lease Act • U.S. lends arms to Allies so “arsenal for democracy” • Some U.S. ships sunk in Atlantic by U-boats
Atlantic Charter Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.
Questions • What was the immediate cause of World War II? • Describe the German concept of the “blitzkrieg”. • Where were the early Axis triumphs, and what was the “phony war”? • What was the miracle at Dunkirk? • What was the significance of June 22, 1940?
Ch. 32 Sect. II Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor Ford Island, seen on 10 October 1941 from much the same angle as Japanese bomber pilots viewed it on 7 December. National Archives Photo 80-G-279375
Increasing Tensions in East Asia 1934 Japan began expanding its naval forces despite promises made at the Washington Navel Conference. 1936 Japan signed an anticommunism pact with Germany. 1937 Japan began a war against China. 1940 Japan formed a military alliance with Germany and Italy. These nations were known as the Axis Powers. • 1941 Japan moved to take control of French Indochina, which threatened American interests. President Roosevelt • tried to reason with General Hideki Tojo, the minister • of war who took control of the country in October of • 1941. But the time for compromise was over.
Attack on Pearl Harbor Causes • Conflict between Japan and the United States over French Indochina • Japan’s alliance with Germany and Italy • Japan’s prime minister, Hideki Tojo, was hostile towards the United States. Effects • Americans reacted to the news of the Pearl Harbor attack with anger and fear. • Californians reported seeing submarines off the Pacific coast. • Some Americans feared that Japanese Americans would assist an invasion of the mainland. • The United States declared war on Japan. • Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
The Attack on Pearl Harbor • Defenses • U.S military planners believed an attack on Pearl Harbor was possible. • Forces at the base were unprepared to defend it. • No single commander was in charge. • Routine defensive steps were not in place. • The Attack • On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked. • Aircraft carriers approached the island of Oahu. • War planes loaded with bombs and torpedoes left the carriers and destroyed American ships and planes. • The attack lasted 2 hours. • The Aftermath • All 8 battleships were damaged; 4 were sunk. • Nearly 200 aircraft were destroyed. • Some 2,400 Americans were dead. • Japan lost only a handful of submarines and fewer than 30 planes.
December 7, 1941the early morning • The attack was planned by Isoroku Yamamoto • The first attack occurred at 7:55 a.m. • The second attack followed at 8:54 a.m.
Deployment of attacking Japanese aircraft 183 aircraft of the first attack wave were launched from the six Imperial Japanese Navy carriers; Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiru, Zuikaku and Shokaku, 230 miles North of O'ahu at 6:00 A.M. - They were ordered to attack at 0750 A.M. by Lt. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. At approximately 7:15 A.M. the second wave of aircraft was launched and 170 more aircraft were on their way to Pearl Harbor.
Shattered by a direct hit, the USS Arizona burns and sinks, December 7, 1941.
FDR calls this “a date which will live in infamy”, and Congress declares that a state of war exists with Japan.